1000 Từ vựng cực chuẩn Writing Band 9

Bạn đã chán ngấy với từ vựng đơn điệu và lặp đi lặp lại? Bạn đang tìm kiếm các từ vựng hay ho để nâng cao band điểm cho bài Writing của mình? Bạn cảm thấy bối rối với vô số từ vựng và không biết bắt đầu từ đâu. Như các bạn biết đó, cô đã từng nhấn mạnh rất nhiều trong các bài viết trước, từ vựng luôn là vấn đề tiên quyết để các bạn có thể nâng cao kĩ năng của mình và cả trong giao tiếp nữa đấy. Chính vì lí do đó, hôm nay các bạn sẽ không còn lo “cạn” từ nữa, cô sẽ chia sẻ cho các bạn 1000 từ vựng đặc biệt dành cho Writing. Đây sẽ là 1 hành trang cực kì hữu ích cho kì thi sắp tới nhé. Từ vựng Cô phân tích cả trong ngữ cảnh từng ví dụ cụ thể để các bạn nắm được cách dung nhé. Các bạn nhớ note lại kĩ càng và ôn tập thật thường xuyên để đạt được điểm cao các bạn nhé.

Vocabulary for ielts
Vocabulary for ielts

Từ vựng hay cho IELTS

productivity = the ability of people to produce useful results at work.
Ex: My country is not as advanced as some other countries in our industrial sector. Productivity and quality are still quite low.

to subsidise = to pay part of the cost of something, usually in order to help people.
Ex: The government could encourage children to be healthier by subsidising swimming lessons and sports coaching at weekends.

output = the amount of work or goods produced.
Ex: In Europe, industrial output has decreased, maybe because of competition from producers in other continents.

work/life balance = the ability to work hard but also enjoy a good quality family and social life
Ex: People are working long hours these days, and so their work/life balance is affected, leading to stress.

to motivate people = to give them positive reasons for working hard
Ex: If employees are given regular feedback, they will probably be well motivated and committed.

pay increments = pay rises/increases
Ex: In my country, pay increments have been very low because of the financial crisis.

perks = reward from an employer which are not financial (eg free lunches, a car etc)
Ex: Personally, I’d like to work for a company that gives lots of perks, because I would find this very enjoyable.

financial rewards = any form of money payment (salary, commission, pension etc)
Ex: Being a primary teacher may be satisfying, but the financial rewards are not high

bonuses = money given in addition to salary, usually in return for achieving targets
Ex:  Apparently some investment bankers can earn millions of dollars in bonuses.

incentives = any reward that makes people work harder
Ex: Some employers offer vacations or parties as incentives if the team hits its sales targets.

job satisfaction = enjoyment of a job for non-financial reasons
Ex: I get a lot of job satisfaction from my work at the wildlife centre, although the financial rewards are quite low.

target-related = dependent on hitting a target
Ex: My boss once offered me a target-related bonus, but it was almost impossible to achieve!

on the job training = training while working, not by leaving work to go to college etc
Ex: My sister has found that the on the job training she gets at her bank is very useful, and she has progressed well because of this.

ongoing training = training throughout your time in a job, not just at the start
Ex: I enjoyed my work at the airline at first, but I soon found that there was no ongoing training and my skills weren’t really developed.

day release programmes = programmes of training or education when employees can spend entire days out of work
Ex: I feel that employers should be much more flexible regarding training, for example by subsidising day release programmes or job exchanges with other companies.

career progression = the ability to advance your career
Ex: The problem with being a freelance photographer is that there’s no real career progression, unless you become very famous.

job prospects = the possibility of promotion or higher level work in future
Ex: I remember an interview when the employer told me there were excellent job prospects in their firm for young people. In reality, this was not really true.

to measure = to assess the dimensions of something
Ex: Job satisfaction may be important, but can we really measure it?

superficial = not addressing deep or important issues
Ex: I’m not a big fan of traditional music. I find the lyrics rather old-fashioned and superficial for modern listeners.

performance reviews/appraisals = meeting at which an employer gives feedback to a worker on their work over a fixed period.
Ex: I remember being worried about my job at first, but at my six month appraisal my manager told me she was pleased with my efforts.

redundancy = a situation where a worker loses their job because of changes in the company (not because of personal mistakes) (verb = to make someone redundant)
Ex: In my home town, the textile factories have closed and many people have been made redundant.

to downsize = to make an organisation smaller and employ fewer people
Ex: My father’s college used to employ almost one thousand people, but then it downsized and now has less than five hundred.

to outsource = to stop doing work inside the company and send it to other companies or other countries, usually to save money
Ex: Many American companies have outsourced their IT operations to Asian countries, where productivity is similar and salaries are lower.

the workforce = the total number of people working in an organisation, company or country
Ex: The workforce in Northern Europe is skilled, but it’s also inflexible and much older than in other parts of the world.

Human Resources (or HR) = the department in a company which manages recruitment, employment and training
Ex: When I graduate, I plan to work in the Human Resources area of the oil industry, possibly in the Middle East.

curriculum = the full range of subjects offered by a school or group of schools
Ex: The curriculum in private schools is sometimes wider than in state schools, because they have more resources.

pedagogical (experts) = (experts in) education and teaching
Ex: I admire pedagogical pioneers such as the Victorian English thinkers who began free schools for all children.

syllabus = the content of elements taught in a specific subject
Ex: The syllabus for geography at my school included volcanoes, earthquakes and tidal waves, which we found fascinating.

continuous assessment = giving students marks for course work or projects, rather than formal exams
Ex: At my school, our grades were based 50/50 on formal examinations and continuous assessment, which we thought was very fair to all the children.

academic achievement = the measurable performance of a student in marks, exam results etc
Ex: In my country, children enjoy school, but academic achievement is frankly quite low.

further education = education after leaving school at the minimum age
Ex: Some governments encourage further education by allowing teenagers to claim benefits while they study.

group work = study where pupils discuss and agree a project together
Ex: Personally, I think that group work enables lazy children to do less work than the eager ones.

teacher-led lessons = traditional lessons where the teacher delivers a long talk and the students take notes
Ex: In my country, lessons are still very teacher-led and interaction is rather limited.

autonomous learning = when a student learns through independent study and research
Ex: At University, you are expected to be an autonomous learner far more than at High School, which is quite exciting for me.

study skills = the skills of organising, using and checking study work
Ex: My study skills were rather weak until I read an excellent book by a Japanese pedagogical expert.

to synthesise sources = to use a variety of sources and combine them in one project
Ex: I use the Internet to synthesise my sources, and I always cite the origin of the information. (to cite sources = to acknowledge publicly)

rote-learning = learning by repetition and memorising items
Ex: I used to think that rote-learning was a negative approach, but my recent experiences teaching in a South African school have changed my view.

to supplement = to add extra content or material
Ex: My supervisor said that I should supplement my essay with more examples of experiments.

to assimilate knowledge = to absorb and understand it
Ex: I always use a dictionary when I study in English, to help me assimilate new phrases.

guided learning = learning under the supervision of a teacher
Ex: Lessons in Primary Schools should always contain guided learning, otherwise the children will lose focus.

data-gathering = collecting information, usually in numerical form
Ex: Mobile phone companies employ many people in data-gathering Tasks, to see how users are using the phones and Internet.

distance learning = learning by the Internet or email, rather than face-to-face
Ex: My mother took an entire degree by distance learning over a period of five years.

self-study = studying using a course without a teacher’s involvement
Ex: There are many self-study guides to improving your English, and some of them are actually quite good.

to discriminate between sources = to decide whether one source is better or more reliable than another source
Ex: Children should not study using unsupervised Internet access, because they can’t discriminate between the sources of information they find.

to sift information = to remove unwanted or less useful information
Ex: I had to sift hundreds of pages of data to arrive at my conclusions when I did my thesis.

to marshal facts = to organise facts in support of an idea
Ex: In IELTS essays, you should marshal a few facts to support each idea in the argument.

an integral part of the syllabus = essential, central or indispensable
Ex: Nutrition is an integral part of food sciences these days

to work/study under supervision = under the direction of a responsible person
Ex: At college, I discovered I did not have to work under supervision all the time, and I was free to do independent research.

foster parents = people who have children living in their existing family for a fixed period, with the original parents’ agreement
Ex: Being a foster parent is a difficult and tiring role, I can imagine.

guardians = people who are legally appointed to protect a child’s interests in the absence of parents
Ex: In some countries, the government appoints a guardian if the parents die or experience severe difficulties.

role models = people that children look to and respect as good examples
Ex: In some countries, the royal family are good role models for youngsters, although in other cases this is not the case.

ground rules = basic rules governing the way people can behave in a situation
Ex: During the school holidays, my parents had strict ground rules for what we could do outside.

conventions = traditions or social norms that most people follow
Ex: It’s a convention for grandparents to live with their children in many countries.

bullying = when children attack and intimidate other children
Ex: Bullying could be reduced through better awareness and positive peer pressure in schools.

truancy = when a pupil leaves school without permission (verb = to play truant from school)
Ex: I must confess that at secondary school I sometimes played truant and went to the park with my friends.

delinquency = minor crime (often by young people)
Ex: Delinquency is a huge problem in urban areas, especially when policing is minimal.

abduction = the crime of taking or kidnapping people for a criminal reason
Ex: Child abduction is a great concern for many parents, especially in South America.

peer pressure = the pressure from people in the same group to act in a certain way
Ex: Many children start smoking due to peer pressure or bad role models.

dual-income = a family where both the father and mother work
Ex: In many countries, the dual-income family is the norm nowadays.

breadwinner = the person who earns all or most of the money in a family
Ex: In some families, the father is still the only breadwinner.

child-minding = caring informally (not in schools) for children when parents are busy or working
Ex: In some countries, the state subsidises the costs of child-minding.

after-school childcare = caring for children in a school setting, as above
Ex: Many families rely on after-school childcare because both parents work and commute.

viable = practical and possible to achieve
Ex: It is not really viable to expect all children to get maximum grades in exams.

peers = people in the same group or level as yourself
Ex: Many of my peers from school are now working for charities.

bonding = the development of close emotional connections between people
Ex: Festivals and parties are an ideal time for families to bond.

patterns of behaviour = ways of acting and doing things (either positive or negative)
Ex: Unfortunately, some children absorb dangerous patterns of behaviour when watching movies or playing computer games.

well brought-up (to bring up children = to raise and educate them in your own moral, behavioural or religious conventions)
Ex: I was brought up in a very religious family, and I seem to have absorbed their values.

contamination = pollution by poisons or dangerous elements
Ex: The atmosphere in large cities is often contaminated by smog, as we can see in China.

the biosphere = the relationship between all living things on the planet
Ex: Children should be educated on the biosphere through field trips and practical experiments.

emissions = gases entering the atmosphere
Ex: Scientists spend their whole careers studying the effect of emissions on the climate.

pollutant particles = microscopic elements of pollution
Ex: I remember going to a factory and seeing the snow covered with pollutant particles.

run-off = water that runs from the ground into rivers and lakes
Ex: We should try to collect and use more run-off water, to avoid having to recycle water so much.

the water cycle = the natural process of water moving from clouds to rain and seas
Ex: Scientists believe the water cycle is responsible for various natural events, especially in coastal areas.

filtration = the process of filtering and removing impurities
Ex: Water filtration might be a solution to water shortages in very hot countries.

water table = the layer of water below ground
Ex: In my town, the water table is very high, and water will appear in even a small hole.

tainted = polluted or contaminated
Ex: The Mediterranean is badly tainted in some areas by sewage pollution.

soil erosion = the loss of soil by wind and rain activity
Ex: Deforestation has increased soil erosion seriously in Brazil.

logging = cutting down trees for timber and industrial use
Ex: Logging has endangered many species throughout the world.

dumping = leaving waste deliberately without storing or treating it
Ex: In most countries, dumping rubbish is a criminal offence.

waste = any material not wanted or needed after a process
Ex: In my country, we use waste from cotton manufacture for lighting fires.

landfills = organised areas where waste is buried in the ground
Ex: Surprisingly, Britain still sends most of its domestic waste to landfill sites.

waste processing = recycling or reducing waste into manageable forms
Ex: My brother has a waste processing company, which is subsidised by the local authority.

poaching = illegally hunting and killing animals
Ex: Elephant poaching should be a much higher priority for the world authorities, as elephants are an endangered species.

habitat loss = destruction or disappearance of an animal’s natural home
Ex: Logging has caused substantial habitat loss for wildlife in many countries.

food chain = the natural system of animals eating other animals and plants
Ex: The food chain has been disrupted by the loss of certain species, with widespread impacts on all animals.

dwindling numbers = (to dwindle = to steadily decline in quantity)
Ex: States seem to have dwindling funds to pay for animal sanctuaries, although they are still able to pay for government officials and their perks.

extinction = the final death of all animals in a species
Ex: Dinosaur extinction may have been caused by a meteor or volcano, but scientists seem unsure about this.

famine = a situation where there is a lack of food in an area for a long time
Ex: Many singers help make charity songs to raise funds for famine relief.

drought = similar to famine, but a lack of water
Ex: Drought in central Africa can continue for many years, apparently.

irrigation = supplying water to land for agriculture
Ex: If we want quick solutions to famine, better irrigation and farming methods would probably be the first step.

catastrophe = a great disaster affecting many people
Ex: The continuing destruction of the rain forests is a catastrophe for the global biosphere.

exacerbated (= to exacerbate = to make an existing problem worse, accidentally or deliberately)
Ex: Famine in Africa has been exacerbated by civil war and political instability.

to preserve = to protect and keep something, usually because it is valuable for some reason
Ex: The state preserves ancient buildings because they are part of our heritage.

rituals = highly traditional ceremonies which have meaning for the participants
Ex: In some countries, wedding rituals continue for several days.

parades = organised processions in public by groups of people, usually to commemorate an event
Ex: In my home town, we have a military parade each year to mark our Independence Day.

to transmit = to communicate a message, literal or symbolic
Ex: The monarchy transmit symbols of power through dress and ritual.

social memes = social habits or patterns which are transmitted between people
Ex: In Britain, punctuality is a social meme.

self-sacrifice = the willingness to suffer or die for a cause
Ex: We remember the self-sacrifice of our wartime generation each year.

cultural traditions = traditions carrying cultural importance
Ex: Hospitality is a great cultural tradition in Mediterranean countries.

mythology, myth = a classic story from the past which people know is not true but which carries meaning
Ex: There are old myths about gigantic animals in my part of the countryside.

to evoke = to bring back memories or feelings
Ex: Our national flag evokes strong emotions whenever we see it.

medieval = adjective for the Middle Ages, roughly 1050 to 1400 in European history
Ex: France has some superb medieval architecture, which I saw on my gap year.
ceremonies = a ceremony is similar to a ritual, usually involving people in authority
Ex: The government enters office with a long ceremony at the presidential palace.

cultural norms = standards expected of behaviour or ideas
Ex: In some countries, marriage between cousins is a cultural norm.

to conserve = a synonym for ‘to preserve’
Ex: Conservation of old treasures is the main role of our city museum.

heritage = something inherited (= received/handed down) by one generation from the previous generation
Ex: Our countryside is part of our national heritage and we should preserve it carefully.

legends = similar to myths, but sometimes containing an element of reality
Ex: Robin Hood is a British legend, although most historians agree the character is based on a real person.

folklore = old stories and myths/legends, usually transmitted verbally
Ex: African folklore is rich in stories of gods and monsters.

inheritance = a synonym for ‘heritage’
Ex: Our greatest inheritance as a nation is our independence and fighting spirit.

fine art = art by famous or acclaimed painters
Ex: Florence in Italy is a key destination for lovers of fine art.

handicrafts = skills of making objects by hand, and also the objects themselves
Ex: Many indigenous people make a living by selling handicrafts to tourists.

opera = a very formal play with a musical score
Ex: La Scala is the name of a famous opera venue in Italy, which I’d like to visit.

shanties and dirges = very traditional songs about basic subjects
Ex: Children sometimes sing shanties at primary school.

linguistic = the adjective meaning ‘about language’
Ex: Linguistic skills are essential for a tour guide in the modern economy.

media = a way of communicating
Ex: Folklore is a very effective media for transmitting our cultural heritage.

to stem from = to come or derive from, often used for negative things
Ex: A lot of delinquency these days stems from the use of drugs or alcohol.

sedentary lifestyle = a lifestyle where people sit for long periods and are generally inactive
Ex: I used to keep fit, but since I started working as an architect my lifestyle had become mostly sedentary.

obesity = the medical condition of being seriously overweight
Ex: In some countries, obesity is the major cause of death among young adults.

inadequate development = insufficient or obstructed growth of the body
Ex: If children smoke, this can cause inadequate development of their lungs and brains.

strain = stress or overwork, physical or mental
Ex: I had to take a vacation due to the strain of working such long hours.

symptoms = indications that a medical problem is present
Ex: A sore throat and headache are symptoms of a cold or flu.

poor diet = a lifestyle diet without sufficient nutrients
Ex: Malnutrition happens due to a poor diet and lack of medical care.

convenience food = food which is cooked in its packaging, usually in a microwave
Ex: British and American people eat a large amount of convenience food.

addiction = the state of being unable to live without something
Ex: Many young people are addicted to social media or Internet use.

to socialise = to meet with friends and other people in a friendly way
Ex: At weekends, I like to socialise at parties and in cafes with my old friends.

interpersonal skills = the skills of dealing with people successfully
Ex: My boss used to be very annoying, but then he went on a course to develop proper interpersonal skills.

to underperform = to perform below your peers or expectations
Ex: My football team are underperforming badly this year.

active lifestyle = a lifestyle with proper exercise and fitness
Ex: The government tries to promote an active lifestyle, but this is not successful.

a regime, a programme = a planned system of exercise, diet or sport
Ex: I adopted a vegetarian regime for three months before my exams.

to detoxify your body = to remove impurities and poisons
Ex: I went to a clinic to detoxify because I was eating too much fatty food.

sponsorship = payment from a company to a sport or other activity in return for publicity
Ex: Motor racing is often sponsored by energy drink brands.

participation = to participate in something = to join and take part in it
Ex: I participated in wrestling when I was at college, but then I gave up.

competitive = the adjective of ‘competition
Ex: Canadians are very competitive about ice hockey teams.

ameliorating the physical effects = to ameliorate = to make a problem less damaging
Ex: The effects of his injury were ameliorated by extensive physiotherapy.

remedies = cures or answers to a problem or situation
Ex: There are many remedies for cold and flu available in pharmacy stores.

an initiative = a new programme or idea, usually in government or business
Ex: We need initiatives to tackle obesity, anti-social behaviour and delinquency.

raise awareness = to make people more aware of or caring about an issue
Ex:  We organised a marathon to raise awareness of heart disease and ways to prevent it through exercise.

health warnings = notices on cigarette or alcohol packaging warning about the medical effects
Ex: Almost all countries have health warnings on tobacco these days.

champions = highly successful people in sport or business
Ex: Roger Federer is a champion tennis player, and a good role model too.

figureheads = people who represent part of society, officially or unofficially
Ex: The singer Adele is a figurehead for many young women these days.

dependency = the condition of relying on something in an addictive way
Ex: The player was treated for drug dependency at a detox clinic in Paris.

pursuits = hobbies or sports which people do for enjoyment
Ex: Skiing and cycling are my main pursuits at weekends.

a challenge = a problem or difficulty to be faced
Ex: The West faces many challenges due to its ageing population.

economic or political instability = a rapid, unmanaged change in a country’s economy or political situation
Ex: Economic instability causes many people to move abroad to seek reliable work.

social unrest = riots, protests or fighting by the public against each other or the government
Ex: Social unrest is spreading from the countryside to the cities, and the police are not responding.

an issue = a topic, subject or question that must be considered
Ex: The issue of petrol price inflation is not often discussed in the media.

pressing matters = urgent, important issues
Ex: I could not go to the college reunion because of more pressing matters at home with my family.

joblessness = a synonym for ‘unemployment’
Ex: Joblessness among older people is actually higher than among recent graduates.

economic prospects = the future possibilities for a national economy
Ex: The economic prospects for very small countries are quite positive these days.

social mobility = the ability of people to progress in terms of salary, lifestyle and social status
Ex: The greatest aid to social mobility is good education and training.

the private sector = private businesses, as opposed to ‘the public sector’ meaning state- owned or controlled services
Ex: I definitely want to work in the private sector after I graduate. It is a more stimulating environment than the public sector.

demographics = the changes in society in terms of age, income, numbers, origins and location in a country
Ex: Demographic changes in Scandinavia have been dramatic, with substantial immigration and an ageing indigenous population.

longevity = the tendency to have a long life expectancy
Ex: Japanese people have perhaps the highest longevity in the world.

to migrate = to move permanently between countries
Ex: Migration within the Eurozone is a highly controversial issue at present.

brain drain’ = the tendency for intelligent or successful workers to migrate out of a country 
Ex: Southern Europe is experiencing a high ‘brain drain’ these days, because of the lack of economic prospects.

existential threats = a threat to existence or life
Ex: The economy of my country faces an existential threat from collapsing oil revenues.

an outbreak = the start of a widespread problem such as disease or conflict
Ex: The outbreak of Ebola is a great concern for doctors globally.

civil war = war between people inside a country
Ex: It will take many years for our nation to recover from the civil war of the 1990s.

livelihood = the way a person makes a living
Ex: Many villagers sell handicrafts, as this is the only livelihood they can find.

developed countries = countries considered to have advanced economies, industries and social infrastructure
Ex: Developed countries contribute aid to those nations affected by famine.

developing countries = countries not generally considered to be fully developed yet
Ex: Illiteracy is a huge challenge for developing countries to overcome.

urban = adjective meaning ‘about cities’
Ex: Urban crime is a great concern for the authorities in most countries today.

investment or funding = money to pay for an activity, either from government or business
Ex: My home town secured investment from a charity for a new stadium, and funding from a local company for sponsorship.

infrastructure = the physical and system organisation of a city, area or country, especially in terms of transport and communications
Ex: The UK railway infrastructure dates back to the 1860’s in many places.

high-capacity = able to handle high volumes of goods or people
Ex: Sea container ships are high-capacity international freight providers.

public transport = transport such as buses and trains funded by the state (as opposed to ‘private transport’ such as cars owned by individuals)
Ex: I usually get to work by public transport, even though it’s very crowded.

congestion = situation of too much traffic, causing delays 
Ex: I have to leave home very early in the mornings, because of the congestion on the way to my college.

transport hubs = centres where many routes converge
Ex: Heathrow airport is the largest transport hub in Europe.

facilities and amenities = places providing any service to the public, either private or public sector
Ex: My home city has many amenities such as swimming pools and parks, and several facilities for elderly people such as care homes.

a bottleneck = a place where congestion regularly happens
Ex: The connection from a motorway to a local road is always a big bottleneck.

hinterland = the area around a city affected by its development
Ex: I live in the hinterland of our capital city, where we regularly go for shopping and for work projects.

to settle in a place = to move and live there permanently, usually with work and a family
Ex: I was born in Asia, but my parents settled in the USA when I was very young.

urban sprawl = the situation where a city expands and buildings are constructed without control or laws
Ex: Urban sprawl has resulted in the rapid expansion of many Asian cities, with resulting damage to the environment.

public-private partnerships = projects funded jointly by the government and business, to reduce the cost to the taxpayer
Ex: My country has just installed a new tunnel under the central mountains, run by a public-private partnership.

tax incentives = reductions in tax to encourage people to do or buy something
Ex: We should use tax incentives to encourage more people to try using their own solar panels at home.

home working = working in your home for all or part of the week
Ex: Home working can be quite an isolated way to do your job.

to commute = to travel a long distance to work every day
Ex: I live in the suburbs and commute by train to the city centre.

suburbs = the residential areas around a city
Ex: Life in the suburbs can be rather boring, to be honest.

communal car-pooling = a voluntary system for people to travel in a shared car, to reduce fuel use
Ex: I tried car-pooling, but it was difficult to arrange the journeys with three other people.

outdated = old-fashioned and not relevant today
Ex: I find that our  political parties are very outdated these days.

innovations = new ideas or things (which are usually useful or exciting)
Ex: Mobile computing was one of the great innovations of the last ten years.

a burden = a weight or responsibility which is difficult to cope with
Ex: The burden of income tax is much too high these days for normal people.

rural = the adjective for ‘countryside’
Ex: I come from a rural area originally, although these days I live in our capital city.

a backwater = an area of a country where little of interest happens
Ex: I used to live in an agricultural town, but frankly it was such a backwater that I moved to one of the larger cities.

rural depopulation = the long-term trend for people to migrate from the countryside to cities, leaving the rural areas with few people
Ex: Rural depopulation can cause huge problems with local infrastructure, as there aren’t enough people to run the services and transport.

country dwellers = people who live in the countryside (‘city dwellers’ = people who live in cities)
Ex: My parents were country dwellers when they first married, but now we all live in a coastal town.

a scarcity = a lack or shortage of something
Ex: The worst problem I experienced in the countryside was a real scarcity of sports events and music festivals.

rural unemployment = unemployment affecting rural workers specifically
Ex: Rural unemployment has been ameliorated by innovative Internet start-ups.

material considerations = concerns about money and material possessions
Ex: You can’t only think of material considerations when deciding who to marry, I feel.

an abundance = a very high level of supply or availability of something
Ex: In the mountains, there’s an abundance of wild flowers and goats.

wildlife = animals living naturally in the wild
Ex: It’s surprising how much wildlife you can see in the suburbs in Australia.

forestry = the industry of growing and cutting trees
When I graduate, I want to work for a responsible forestry company.

water bodies = inland areas of water (rivers, lakes, reservoirs etc)
Ex: My country is very arid and has almost no water bodies.

subsistence = adjective meaning ‘producing just enough to live on’
Ex: Subsistence farmers grow their own food but have little left to sell for profit.

self-sufficient = not needing to import or buy resources from outside the farm or country
Ex: During the war, our country became self-sufficient in crops and fuel.

smallholders = farmers managing very small farms, usually with their families
I worked on a project training smallholders in South America in how to lobby politicians for reform.

the wider economy = the national economy in a country
Ex: My business is growing, despite the decline in the wider economy.

animal husbandry = the skill of keeping animals
Ex: My sister studied animal husbandry at college and enjoyed it enormously.

crop rotation = the process of using different fields each year to keep the soil healthy
Ex: Some smallholders do not practise crop rotation, and so their land becomes infertile.

remote viewing = viewing places by Internet, not in person
Ex: I took a remote viewing tour of the Metropolitan Museum in New York, and found it very impressive.

environmental awareness = an understanding of environmental issues
Ex: Environmental awareness is part of the school curriculum these days for most children.

far-flung = remote or far away
Ex: My friends lives in a very far-flung village, but we keep in touch by Skype.

trustworthy = capable of being trusted
Ex: In most countries, politicians are regarded as untrustworthy and possibly corrupt.

paramount = of the greatest importance
Ex: It is paramount that we find a solution to the problem of Internet piracy.

devious = extremely clever in a dishonest way
Ex: Online criminals today are devious, and use many different methods to deceive their victims.

minutiae (pronounced ‘my-new-shy’) = small details
Ex: Nobody really understands the minutiae of the new tax code.

grievance = an issue which makes people upset or angry for a long time
Ex: Some towns in the countryside have a grievance with central government because of land reform laws.

sensitivity = being alert to the circumstances of a specific group of people
Ex: Teachers should show sensitivity to students who have language difficulties.

to commit an offence/a crime = to do it
Ex: The President committed murder when he arranged for his opponent to be assassinated.

evidence = material presented in court to prove that someone is guilty or innocent
Ex: The police had a lot of DNA evidence against her, but no witness statements.

a trial = the legal procedure of prosecuting someone for a crime
Ex: A murder trial can last for many weeks and cost millions of Euros to conduct.

conviction rates = the percentage of accused people who are convicted of (= found to be guilty of) a crime
Ex: Conviction rates for burglary are low; only about 30% of trials result in a conviction.

a deterrent = something that makes people not want to do something (verb = to deter)
Ex: We have a guard dog as a deterrent against intruders at night. It deters people from coming into our garden.

Imprisonment = punishment by being in prison
Ex: He was sentenced to five years imprisonment for the armed robbery of a shop.

A fine = money paid as a punishment
Ex: The fine for speeding in my country is about 200 Euros.

community service = punishment by doing manual work for the public
Ex: Her community service consisted of cleaning the town parks and sweeping litter in the streets.

rehabilitation = the process of changing a criminal’s character so that he does not commit more crimes (verb = to rehabilitate someone)
Ex: Some prisons use music and drama to rehabilitate offenders. Others say there is no point in trying.

an offender = a person who commits an offence
Ex: The government should provide training for offenders in prison, so that they don’t turn to crime again when they leave.

tendencies = inclinations due to your character (usually negative)
Ex: Some young people in cities have tendencies towards graffiti and vandalism. corruption = the crime when an official breaks laws to help people that he knows Corruption is widespread in the police in some developing countries.

bribery = the crime of giving money to officials to get something done (verb = to bribe someone)
Ex: I had to bribe a customs inspector to get my luggage through the airport.

to enforce laws = to apply them to people
Ex: The police are not enforcing the laws about dropping litter in public. They should arrest more people for this.

unequitable = unfair or different for different groups
Ex: It is unequitable to arrest young people for speeding, but not older people.

law-abiding = following all the laws in a proper way
Ex: I am a law-abiding citizen. I never break the speed limit or any other laws.

transferable skills = skills that can be used in different situations
Ex: I have transferable skills which I use in both my professional career and my fund-raising work for charities.

lateral thinking = the ability to think creatively and in new ways
Ex: Facebook and Google are great examples of companies that have grown on lateral thinking.

investigative = adjective from ‘to investigate’ = to enquire about the causes of a crime or a problem
Ex: The police refused to investigate the Prime Minister, leading to accusations of corruption.

a context = a specific situation
Ex: Armed police evidently work well in the American context, but would be less effective in a British context.

to outweigh = to be more important than
Ex: The advantages of having a diesel car outweigh the costs.

over-familiarity = when an official is too friendly with the public
Ex: We should discourage over-familiarity between judges and lawyers, because it could lead to corruption.

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Chúc các bạn học tốt và thành công nhé.