Dạo này cô thấy rất nhiều bạn đặt câu hỏi “Cô ơi em mất căn bản thì sao cô?” hay “Em phải bắt đầu từ đâu?” ???
Well, từ vựng và ngữ pháp là 2 thứ nền tảng cho cả 4 kĩ năng mà các bạn cần trau dồi liên tục để ôn luyện hay học thi Ielts. Hôm nay cô rút gọn các từ vựng và expression trong quyển “Vocabulary for Ielts” của Cambridge để hỗ trợ cho các bạn học dễ dàng hơn, và bài giảng cũng thích hợp cho mọi level. ???? Quyển này chia theo chủ đề nên cô cũng chia nhóm từ theo chủ đề, phần I bao gồm Growing up, Mental and physical development, Keeping fit, Lifestyles, Student life. Tuy nhiên các bạn cũng có thể sử dụng các từ vựng cho rất nhiều ngữ cảnh khác. Các phần sau sẽ bao gồm những chủ đề khác.
- Growing up
Adolescence (n): khoảng thời gian sau dậy thì, quá trình phát triển thành người lớn.
Ex: The rush of hormones associated with adolescence is why teenagers commonly suffer.
Adulthood (n): Giai đoạn thành người lớn
Ex: Upon reaching adulthood, men continue competing.
Brotherhood (n): tình anh em, tình bạn, sự gắn kết giữa những người có cùng chí hướng, sở thích,v.v
Ex: This focus continues, encouraged by international scouting events and an emphasis on sisterhood and brotherhood across cultures.
Fatherhood (n): thân phận làm cha của ai đó
Ex: This group released a national survey which examined the views of many mothers on fatherhood.
Instinct (n): bản năng, thiên tính
Ex: The interest in the game arises from a natural instinct for attack and defence.
Motherhood (n): thân phận làm mẹ của ai đó
Ex: She settled into married life and motherhood.
Resemblance (n): sự giống nhau
Ex: It was lovely to see her; there’s a definite family resemblance between her and Mum.
Rivalry (n): sự cạnh tranh, ganh đua lẫn nhau
Ex: We didn’t have any kind of sibling rivalry or jealousy or anything else that normal siblings do.
Sibling (n): anh/em ruột hoặc chị/em ruột
Ex: If you do not have children or parents then siblings or further removed relatives may benefit.
Temperament (n): tính cách, bản chất
Ex: Women with the aspect often have an excessively emotional temperament.
Upbringing (n): Cách mà 1 đứa trẻ được dẫy dỗ, nuôi nấng
Ex: He said that the upbringing of children should be a private matter for parents.
Extended family: Gia đình bao gồm cả cô, dì, chú, bác, v.v
Ex: Our children, our extended family and friends know how much Jerry and I love kids and have always tried to help and care for them.
Nuclear family: Gia đình chỉ bao gồm cha, mẹ, con trai, con gái.
Ex: Within the nuclear family the relationship between husband and wife became a more egalitarian one.
Immediate family: bao gồm các thành viên có quan hệ huyết thống trực hệ ông bà, cha mẹ, con cái.
Ex: He, as well as his immediate family, had been made prisoners.
Maternal instinct: bản năng làm mẹ.
Ex: Surely all women must have a maternal instinct or the human race would die out.
Sibling rivalry: Các vụ cãi nhau, đánh nhau, ghen tỵ giữa các anh chị em trong gia đình.
Ex: Sibling rivalry usually continues throughout childhood and can be very frustrating and stressful to parents.
Stable upbringing: lớn lên trong 1 môi trường ổn định và ôn hòa
Ex: They have to be willing to make whatever adjustments that are necessary to give Sheldon a stable upbringing.
Puberty (n): dậy thì
Ex: Jonathan had reached puberty in full rebellion, which was one of the reasons she didn’t think he should have a cell phone.
Striking resemblance: sự giống nhau đến bất ngờ
Ex: She bears a striking resemblance to her mother.
Close-knit (adj): Có mối quan hệ khắn khít, thân thiết trong 1 nhóm người
Ex: Her recollection of those early years was of a close-knit happy family that played games together.
Maternal (adj) : Có cảm giác giống với cách mà một người mẹ quan tâm con của mình / đi liền với thiên chức làm mẹ / họ hàng bên họ mẹ
Ex: She just couldn’t seem to invoke any maternal feelings inside of herself.
But, for women there are powerful instincts and maternal feelings at play.
I’m still not exactly sure how he’s related to me, but I think he was my maternal grandfather’s brother.
Parental (adj): gắn với việc làm bố mẹ
Ex: The government repeatedly stressed its support for parental choice in the selection of a child’s school.
Accommodate (v): cung cấp cho người nào đó chỗ ở, chỗ ngủ.
Ex: We moved to a bigger house when our starter home became too small too accommodate our growing family.
Endure (v): chịu đựng
Ex: The refugees have endured more hardship than most people can imagine.
Nurture (v): quan tâm, bảo vệ sự phát triển của ai đó hoặc cái gì đó
Ex: In addition to the physical, parents also have trouble finding time to nurture their kids ‘ emotional well-being.
She nurtures creativity, including student compositions, and promotes a lifelong love of music.
- Mental and Physical Development
Gesture (n): hành động, cử chỉ
Ex: Since they spoke only Swahili, we used signs and gestures to make ourselves understood.
Infancy (n): thời gian khi còn là trẻ con trước 7 tuổi / giai đoạn phát triển sớm của cái gì đó
Ex: In general, I’d like to know about the early childhood, perhaps infancy, of all mathematicians.
Methods for assessment of methodological quality by systematic reviews are still in their infancy and there is substantial room for improvement.
Milestone (n): cột mốc
Ex: Here are important milestones on the road leading up to the current situation.
The speech is being hailed as a milestone in race relations
Peer(s) (n): người cùng tuổi hay cùng địa vị xã hội
Ex: On the statewide ballots, we asked the teachers to rank their peers on a grading scale.
Infant (n): trẻ con (dưới 7 tuổi)
Ex: When we made the decision to adopt, we decided to seek a child from China because we were assured we could adopt a young and healthy infant there.
Maturity (n): sự chính chắn, sự trưởng thành / đến kỳ hạn, thời hạn
Ex: She took her mind’s wisdom as a way of showing her growing maturity.
If you need cash in the interim, you do not need to hold these instruments until maturity .
Toddler (n): trẻ em mới biết đi
Ex: The survey also revealed that one in six parents of babies or toddlers lose their temper with their child every other day.
Cognitive (adj): gắn với quá trình nhận thức
Ex: Further into the forebrain, motor functions trail off and cognitive functions, involving planning and thinking about the future, begin.
Clumsy (adj): vụng về
Ex: He subsequently wrote a letter to the magazine in an admittedly clumsy try at explaining his viewpoint.
full-grown (adj): phát triển hết cỡ
Ex: In response she is reminded of the seeds she found and how she helped them mature into full-grown trees.
Immature (adj): chưa trưởng thành, chưa chính chắn
Ex: His teachers have complained about his immature behavior.
Irresponsible (adj): không có trách nhiệm
Ex: His refusal to work shows him to be completely irresponsible.
Rebellious (adj): nổi loạn, ương ngạnh, bạo động
Ex: If that was attitude for most, Samantha quickly showed that there was more to come; she swiftly became rebellious and resisted any order that came her way.
In a sense I agree that it may be too late to keep the rebellious province in the north within the republic.
Tolerant (adj): khoan dung, khoan thứ, cho phép
Ex: We have grown so tolerant of loud debate that any opinion short of violence is a reasoned one.
look back: nhìn lại, nhìn về
Ex: We raised three kids and worked full-time – sometimes I look back and wonder how we did it.
Reminisce (v): (about sth/sb) hồi tưởng lại
Ex: He reminisced about past years while they ate lunch before he excused himself and left the two men.
Throw a tantrum: quậy, khóc nháo, giận dữ.
Ex: When you are a grown-up, you don’t throw a tantrum if something offends you, you discuss it.
Bear in mind: nhớ cái gì đó, ai đó
Ex: You need to bear in mind that the figures vary from place to place
- Keeping Fit
Allergy (n): dị ứng
Ex: The most common nose or lung allergies are to pollens, molds, dust mites, and cats.
Appetite (n): sự thèm ăn / sự khao khát, mong muốn đối với cái gì đó
Ex: Just at this time he made a discovery that helped him satisfy their new appetite for solid food.
Of course, to be patient, you have to have a long investing horizon and an appetite for some risk.
Artery (n): động mạch / đường giao thông lớn
Ex: Thrombosis means the clotting of blood within an artery or a vein.
New traffic figures show Scotland’s main motorway artery is rapidly clogging up ahead of expert forecasts.
Craving (n): sự ham muốn tột bật cho cái gì đó
Ex: Hunger cravings can take control and send you on an eating binge that can actually lead to weight gain!
Dietitian (n): chuyên viên dinh dưỡng
Ex: A registered dietitian (RD) can help you find healthy ways to manage your weight loss with food.
Infection (n): sự nhiễm trùng, sự lây nhiễm
Ex: Will had mistakenly connected the pathway of infection in a hospital room with someone coughing or sneezing circulating in public.
Ingredient (n): (of/in/for something) nguyên liệu / nhân tố, thành phần
Ex: Pork is an important ingredient in many stir-fried dishes
Even his signature instrument, Auto-Tune, has become as accepted an ingredient in hip-hop as the drum machine.
Insomnia (n): chứng mất ngủ
Ex: Depression and anxiety are the two most frequent psychiatric causes of insomnia.
Intake (n): lượng thức ăn, nước uống nạp vào cơ thể
Ex: Unless their food intake is strictly controlled, they can quickly become obese.
Obesity (n): béo phì
Ex: Due to the increase in the family’s obesity, Jane worried about the health of her family including heart attacks and diabetes.
Obese (adj): mập, béo phì
Ex: The latest evidence shows people are getting more overweight and obese .
Onset (n): sự bắt đầu của cái gì đó, đặc biệt là bệnh
Ex: However in some patients, the onset of symptoms is sudden; this is usually seen in patients with a neurological basis for their illness.
Portion (n): 1 phần của cái gì đó lớn / khẩu phần thức ăn
Ex: The project is divided into different portions, individually tendered and contracted.
But, to be honest, I’ve grown to enjoy only eating at proper meal-times and then to eat sensible size portions of more suitable foods.
Serving (n): lượng thức ăn cho 1 người
Ex: Laura began to cook more and often adjusted recipes to prepare one or two servings, instead of four or more.
Stroke (n): đột quỵ
Ex: Symptoms of stroke include trouble walking, speaking, and understanding, as well as paralysis or numbness of the face, arm, or leg
Therapy (n): trị liệu, chữa trị bệnh thân thể hay tinh thần
Ex: I made the point that psychological research and therapy have two extremely different goals.
Acute (adj): (bệnh) xấu đi, dữ dội, nghiêm trọng.
Ex: Appropriate treatment controls acute symptoms and reduces the risk of longer term complications.
Brisk (adj): nhanh gọn, bận rộn | (chỉ người, giọng nói, cách hành xử) tự tin, hoạt bát, lanh lợi, nhanh nhẹn | (chỉ gió và thời tiết) lạnh nhưng trong lành
Ex: Navi took a quick break from their brisk walk by leaning against one of the light poles.
Skyler replied to her question with a brisk nod, and tried to not make eye contact.
Having been used to arid, scorching heat, the brisk weather was both welcome and refreshing, if not a bit cold.
Persistent (adj): khăng khăng, cố chấp / kéo dài không dứt
Ex: My persistent opposition has become a thorn in the side of the trade union leaders, because it has exposed their shameless collaboration with management.
Management of recurrent or persistent pain can be extremely difficult.
Chronic (adj): (bệnh) mãn tính
Ex: Living with an invisible chronic illness can mean constantly trying to redefine your condition.
Vital (adj): quan trọng, thiết yếu / đầy sức sống, năng lượng
Ex: Maintaining a sense of such importance is vital to making the most of a bad situation.
My vital energy has drained right out of me just when I wasn’t looking, like a slow puncture in my tire, I have been let down.
Counteract (v): chống chọi lại
Ex: She did her best to counteract the disease.
Curb (v): hạn chế, kiềm chế cái gì đó, đặc biệt là cái gì đó tệ hay xấu.
Ex: Surely there’s a way to curb smoking without seriously hampering such businesses.
Diminish (v): làm giảm đi, giảm bớt
Ex: Chances are the pain will diminish as your musculature recovers.
Disrupt (v): làm gián đoạn, phân chia
Ex: Alcohol can disrupt the chromosomes of an unfertilized egg
Eliminate (v): loại bỏ, bài tiết, bỏ
Ex: They knew poisonous plants, and could eliminate noxious properties.
Stimulate (v): kích thích
Ex: For many species, GA 3 produced by developing seeds stimulates the growth and maturation of that fruit.
Trigger (v): gây ra 1 sự việc
Ex: Remember, you have to talk to every single one in order to trigger the event.
Optimist (n): người sống tích cực, lạc quan
Ex: Only an eternal optimist could expect success
Outlook (n): (on something) thái độ, quan điểm
Ex: What she knew was that her father and his lies had skewed her outlook on her world for ten years.
Pessimist (n): người tiêu cực, bi quan
Ex: The average man is pessimist or optimist not on theoretical grounds, but owing to the circumstances of his life, his material prosperity, his bodily health, his general temperament.
Risk-taker (n): người thích mạo hiểm
Ex: For decades, maybe longer, the notion that the CEO must be an entrepreneurial risk-taker has been treated as a given fact–and not just a risk-taker, but a big “bold” risk-taker at that.
Self-expression (n): Sự thể hiện suy nghĩ, cảm xúc, ý tưởng đặc biệt là trong nghệ thuật.
Ex: Although this was essentially ceramic art, it assumed the form of pure art since it was a means of self-expression.
Intense (adj): kịch liệt, khốc liệt, dữ dội / hay cáu gắt, khó chịu
Ex: If your activity is more intense – a marathon, say, or a big climb – you have a greater need for a full recovery.
Listening to this intense young man, there is little doubt he has done things the hard way; no favours doled out and none asked for.
Materialistic (adj): quan trọng vật chất, tiền tài
Ex: An example of someone materialistic is a friend who is focused on only wearing designer clothing.
Outdoor (adj): ngoài trời
Ex: Gardening, now ranked as America’s number one outdoor activity, is growing like a weed.
Recreational (adj): liên quan đến hoạt động vui chơi giải trí
Ex: This is a credit to the local community and they have a right to expect funding for recreational facilities.
Appeal (v): kháng cáo, kháng án / thu hút người khác / khẩn cầu
Ex: The judges’ decision might, however, be appealed against.
This group will appeal if your interest lies in a somewhat more contemporary repertory.
The government appealed to the people to stay calm.
Fulfill (v): hoàn thành, thi hành
Some officials were dismissed because they could not fulfill their duties
- Student life
Controversy (n): cuộc tranh cãi, tranh luận
Ex: The good thing is that my work continues to raise a lot of controversies and dialogues.
Dissertation (n):(on something) luận án, nghị luận
Ex: It would also be helpful for doctoral and master’s degree candidates who want to study how other successful dissertations and theses have been presented.
Finding (n): phát hiện, khám phá, ý kiến (trong nghiên cứu khoa học) | (luật) quyết định của tòa án hay bồi thẩm đoàn
Ex: When he had summed up his findings, Anderson agreed that the evidence gathered to date pointed to a simple accident.
The legislative outcome of the findings of this royal commission was the Agricultural Holdings Act 1883, a measure which continued in force in its entirety till 1901, when a new act came into operation.
Nursery (n): trường mẫu giáo
Ex: Mariella eventually wants to run her own nursery and says that Just Learning is teaching her well.
Learning disability: Vấn đề về thần kinh do bẩm sinh hay tai nạn làm một người gặp khó khăn trong việc học thứ mới
Ex: But the important thing to remember is that most kids with learning disabilities are just as smart as everyone else.
Scope (n): cơ hội hay khả năng làm việc gì đó |phạm vi
Ex: The scope for major change is always limited by political realities
In 1912, the research scope was broadened to include noninfectious diseases.
single-sex education: hiện tượng cho học sinh nam nữ học tách biệt ở những trường hay lớp hay tòa nhà khác nhau.
Studious (adj): chăm học, ham học
Ex: And even though he is quite studious there are two things he excels in that definitely make him stand out amongst my friends.