Từ vựng 9 chủ đề phổ biến trong IELTS
Từ vựng theo chủ đề thì nhiều vô số kể luôn nhưng thay vì share mien man cơ số nào là từ vựng thì lần này cô share theo kiểu “chất lượng hơn số lượng” nhé, thà ít nhưng mà giúp các em nhớ bền nhớ lâu luôn. Cho nên các em cứ chăm chỉ học chuỗi từ trong list này kĩ vào, học cả gia đình họ hạng của nó nữa, danh từ, động từ, các từ chung hệ với từ đó, cả collocation đính kèm nữa, cứ như vậy là ăn điểm với writing và speaking thôi mà.
- Graduate : To complete a first university degree successfully
Ex: I graduated from the University of Salford in 2009.
Ex: My graduation ceremony was in 2009.
- Curriculum: The group of subjects studied in a school, college, etc
Ex: Schools must ensure they have an excellent curriculum.
- Qualification: An official record showing that you have finished a training course or have the necessary skills, etc
Ex: Good qualifications are really important if you want to get a well-paid job.
Ex: I am qualified to teach English.
- Coursework: Regular work done by students as part of a course, but assessed independently of formal exams.
Ex: The coursework on my degree was really difficult.
- Co-educational: When male and female students are taught together in the same school or college rather than separately
Ex: Co-educational schools prepare students for their future better than single-sex schools.
- Cheat: To behave in a dishonest way in order to get what you want
Ex: He did really well in his exams but he cheated. He copied from a friend.
Ex: Cheating on exams is not recommended.
- Literacy: The ability to read and write.
Ex: Literacy rates have declined considerably in Western countries over the last decade.
Ex: However, most children are literate.
- Illiterate: Unable to read and write
Ex: Many children in the poorest countries are illiterate.
- Primary (elementary) Education: First years of formal education from around age 5 to 11.
Ex: A good primary education is crucial for a child’s development.
- Secondary Education: Education during the time as a teenager.
Ex: I loved it at my secondary school as I had so many friends.
- Higher (tertiary) Education: Non-compulsory education after finishing school, such as university, as well as vocational education and training at colleges.
Ex: 60% of children now go into higher education after they finish school.
- Concentrate: To direct your attention or your efforts towards a particular activity, subject or problem
Ex: It is difficult to concentrate on my work if there is a lot of noise.
Ex: I keep losing concentration due to the noise.
- Legislation: A law or set of laws suggested by a government and made official by a parliament.
Ex: There needs to be changes to crime-related legislation.
- Deter: To make someone less enthusiastic about doing something by threatening bad results if they do it.
Ex: Tougher prison sentences may be a deterrent to other would-be offenders.
- Offender: Someone who is guilty of a crime.
Ex: Prison should not be used for first-time offenders.
- Punish: To cause someone who has done something wrong or committed a crime to suffer, by hurting them, forcing them to pay money, sending them to prison, etc
Ex: Those responsible for serious crimes must be punished.
- Prevention: When you stop something from happening or stop someone from doing something.
Ex: The government should focus on the prevention of crime rather than introducing harsher prison sentences.
- Commit: To do something illegal or something that is considered wrong.
Ex: People who commit serious crimes should be given lengthy (long) prison sentences.
- Criminal: A person who commits a crime.
Ex: Criminals who commit violent crimes should not be given probation.
- Probation: A period of time when a criminal must behave well and not commit any more crimes in order to avoid being sent to prison.
Ex: Probation is a good way to reduce prison overcrowding, but it must only be used for those who have committed minor crimes.
- Rehabilitate: To return someone or something to a good or healthy condition, state or way of living.
Ex: It is important to rehabilitate criminals while they are in prison otherwise they may re-offend (commit a crime again) when they are released from prison.
- Guilt: Having done something wrong or committed a crime.
Ex: If jurors (the members of a jury) find a defendant guilty, then that person must be punished.
- Jury: A group of people chosen to decide in a court of law if someone is guilty of a crime or not.
Ex: To ensure fairness in a criminal trial, there must be a jury.
- Convict: To decide officially in a court of law that someone is guilty of a crime.
Ex: He has been convicted of arson (starting a fire intentionally to damage something) two times now.
- Fine: Being made to pay money for breaking the law.
Ex: Motorists should be given a fine if they are caught speeding.
- Imprisonment: Being put in prison.
Ex: Murderers are usually given life imprisonment.
- Community Service: Work that people do to help other people without payment, and which young criminals whose crime was not serious enough for them to be put in prison are sometimes ordered to do.
Ex: Community service is a good alternative to prison for minor offences.
- Justice: Fairness in the way people are dealt with.
Ex: Those who commit assaults must be imprisoned because the victims want justice.
- Victim: Someone who has suffered because of the actions of someone else.
Ex: The victims of crime often need help and support to recover from their bad experience.
- Fitness, Diet and Health Vocabulary
- Overweight: Fat
Ex: 70% of the population is now overweight according to official figures.
- Obesity: Extremely fat or overweight.
Ex: Obesity is now a real problem for teenagers.
Ex: Teenagers who are obese are often bullied at school.
- Eating Disorder: A mental illness in which people eat far too little or far too much food and are unhappy with their bodies.
Ex: Bulimia and anorexia are types of eating disorder. Both are becoming more common.
- Nutrients: Any substance which plants or animals need in order to live and grow.
Ex: A healthy diet should consist of all the essential nutrients.
Ex: This meal is very nutritious.
- Diet: The food and drink usually eaten or drunk by a person or group. OR When someone eats less food, or only particular types of food, because they want to become thinner or for medical reasons.
Ex: It is important to have a healthy diet. People must eat plenty of fruit and vegetables.
Ex: I’ve been on a diet now for four weeks, and I’ve lost about one kilo.
- Overeating: Eating more than your body needs.
Ex: There is evidence that overeating is one of the main causes of obesity..
- Ingredients: A food that is used with other foods in the preparation of a particular dish.
Ex: The ingredients of the dish include nuts, raisins, and parsley.
- Allergy: A condition that makes a person become ill or develop skin or breathing problems because they have eaten certain foods or been near certain substances.
Ex: Allergies are becoming more common, and this could be connected to diet.
Ex: If I eat nuts, I have an allergic reaction. I cannot breath properly.
- Additive: A substance which is added to food in order to improve its taste or appearance or to preserve it.
Ex: This food is full of additives so I’m not going to eat it.
- Prevent: To stop something from happening.
Ex: Lots of exercise will prevent a heart attack.
Ex: The prevention of health problems should be encouraged by the government. For example, they could ban the advertising of fast food to children.
- Variety: Often changing and being different.
Ex: When preparing meals, you need to think about variety and taste as well as nutritional value.
- Appetite: When you want to eat food.
Ex: All that exercise has given me an appetite.
- Fibre: A substance in foods such as fruit, vegetables and brown bread, which travels through the body as waste and helps the contents of the bowels to pass through the body easily.
Ex: A diet that is high in fibre is important in order to maintain a healthy body.
- Regular: Happening or doing something often.
Ex: Regular physical exercise is important for good health.
- Vitamins: Any of a group of natural substances which are necessary in small amounts for the growth and good health of the body.
Ex: Many people take vitamin supplements these days in order to keep their body healthy.
- Diabetes: A disease in which the body cannot control the level of sugar in the blood.
Ex: Diabetes is becoming much more prevalent ( = common or widespread) amongst children.
- Health: The condition of the body and the degree to which it is free from illness, or the state of being well.
Ex: Fruit has several health benefits.
Ex: Elderly people can have many health problems.
Ex: The health care in the country is deteriorating ( = getting worse).
Ex: There may be health risks from eating too much red meat.
Ex: Health education is very important if we are to prevent illness and reduce medical costs.
Ex: Sweden has one of the best health systems in the world.
- Employee: Someone who is paid to work for someone else.
Ex: The company has several hundred employees.
- Employer: A person or organization that employs people.
Ex: Employers monitor their employees very carefully these days.
- Employment: When someone is paid to work for a company or organization.
Ex: Due to the recession, there are thousands of people looking for employment.
Ex: I was employed in the company for several years.
- Unemployment: Not working.
Ex: Levels of unemployment in the economy have been rapidly increasing.
Ex: He has been unemployed for 6 months now.
- Commute: To make the same journey regularly between work and home
Ex: It is taking longer for people to commute to work because of traffic problems.
Ex: Commuting to work every day by bus is tiring.
- Occupation: Formal way to say ‘job’.
Ex: What is your occupation?
- Career: Working life or a particular job during one’s working life that gets better in terms of salary and position.
Ex: He is retired now but he had an amazing career ( = succesful working life).
Ex: He hopes to have a career in the army
- Profession: Any type of work which needs special training or a particular skill, often one which is respected because it involves a high level of education.
Ex: The teaching profession is not as good as it used to be because salaries have decreased.
- Salary / Wages: Money paid each month to an employee for their work.
Ex: Public sector salaries are not keeping up with inflation.
Ex: He receives a good wage because he works for a prestigious company.
- Public Sector: Businesses and industries that are owned or controlled by the government.
Ex: You get a good pension if you work for the public sector, but the salary is not always so good.
- Private Sector: Businesses and industries that are privately owned.
Ex: Most graduates hope to work in the private sector when they finish university as there are more opportunities and the pay is better than the public sector.
- Retire: To stop working because of old age or ill health.
Ex: The retirement age in most countries is 65.
Ex: He had to retire early due to ill health.
- Flexitime: Working a fixed number of hours but having flexibility with start and finish times.
Ex: They have introduced flexitime at my work place so I usually start at 10am now and finish at 6pm.
- Resign / Quit: To leave a job.
Ex: He resigned from his job yesterday.
Ex: Don’t quit your job unless you have another one to start.
- Fire / Sack /Dismiss: To remove someone from their job, especially because they have done something wrong
Ex: He was fired / sacked / dismissed because he was late for work every day.
- Vacancy: A job position that is not filled and so is available.
Ex: I spoke to the company and they said they had several vacancies.
- Overtime: Working more than your contracted hours.
Ex: The employees often work overtime but they are not given extra money so it is not fair.
- Shift: The time worked in a job that is not normal hours.
Ex: She is a nurse so she has to work in shifts. One week she does the morning shift, and then the next week she will do the night shift.
Ex: Shift work can be very tiring.
- Information Technology
- Access: The right to use or look at something
Ex: Everybody should have access to the internet.
- Advanced: Modern and well developed
Ex: Technological advances have brought many benefits to the world.
Ex: Japan has very advanced technology (not ‘high’ technology!).
- Automation: To make a process in a factory or office operate by machines or computers, in order to reduce the amount of work done by humans and the time taken to do the work
Ex: The automation of production processes has led to increased unemployment.
Ex: Many production processes these days are automated.
- Connection: When something joins or is joined to something else, or the part or process that makes this possible
Ex: Most people are connected to the internet these days.
Ex: Having a connection to the internet is important.
Ex: I often have problems connecting to the internet.
- Communication: The act of communicating with people
Ex: Email has made communication, especially abroad, much simpler and faster.
Ex: Communicating with people by email is very easy.
- Device: An object or machine which has been invented for a particular purpose
Ex: It is important to have some kind of communication device such as a mobile telephone or the internet.
- Innovation: A new idea or method
Ex: Smart phones are the latest innovation in computer technology.
Ex: Steve Jobs was a great innovator.
- Invention: Something which has never been made before, or the process of creating something which has never been made before
Ex: The world changed rapidly after the invention of the telephone.
Ex: Many useful devices have been invented over the last few decades.
- Machine: A piece of equipment with several moving parts which uses power to do a particular type of work
Ex: Factories now make use of machines to do a lot of the work humans used to do.
Ex: Machinery does most of the work in factories.
- Up-to-date: Modern, recent, or containing the latest information
Ex: Teenagers think it is important to have the most up-to-date technology.
- User-friendly: If something, especially something related to a computer, is user-friendly, it is simple for people to use
Ex: Modern mobile phones such as the iphone are very user-friendly.
- The Environment: The air, water and land in or on which people, animals and plants live.
Ex: More must be done to protect the environment from pollution.
Ex: Environmental problems are becoming very severe in many countries.
- Climate: The weather conditions generally present in an area or over a long period.
Ex: The Mediterranean region tends to have a mild climate over the winter.
- Climate Change: The change in global climate patterns which appeared from the mid to late 20th century onwards, caused mainly by the increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
Ex: The climate around the world has been changing rapidly over the last decade.
Ex: Climate Change is one of the most serious problems that the world is facing today.
- Carbon Dioxide (CO2): The gas formed when carbon is burned, or when people or animals breathe out.
Ex: The burning of fossil fuels releases large amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which leads to global warming.
Ex: Trees absorb carbon dioxide.
- Fossil Fuels: A natural fuel such as coal, gas, or oil formed in the geological past from the remains of living organisms.
Ex: Some people do not believe that human’s reliance on fossil fuels is to blame for global warming.
- Global Warming: A gradual rise in the world’s temperatures caused by polluting gases such as carbon dioxide which are collecting in the air around the Earth and preventing heat escaping into space.
Ex: Deforestation is contributing to global warming because trees absorb carbon dioxide.
- Deforestation: Cutting down and clearing areas of forest.
Ex: Deforestation is destroying animal habitats.
- Habitat: The natural environment in which an animal or plant usually lives.
Ex: With so many areas of woodland being cut down, a lot of wildlife is losing its natural habitat.
- Ecosystem: All the living things in an area and the way they affect each other and the environment.
Ex: The world has a delicately balanced ecosystem, and pollution can damage this.
Ex: The marine (= related to the sea) ecosystem was badly damaged by the oil spill..
- Biodiversity: The variety of plant and animal life in the world or in a particular habitat, a high level of which is usually considered to be important and desirable.
Ex: The rich and diverse biodiversity of our planet must be protected.
- Contamination: To make something less pure by exposing it to poisonous or polluting substances.
Ex: The water has been contaminated by the release of toxic chemicals into the river.
Ex: The water supply is being tested for contamination.
- Toxic /Toxin: Poisonous / A poisonous substance
Ex: The dumping (= disposing of something in a careless way) of toxic waste has contaminated the area. Ex: Leaded fuel from cars releases toxins into the air which can affect the brain.
- Waste: A material or substance which is eliminated or discarded as no longer useful or required after the completion of a process.
Ex: The Green Party opposes any kind of nuclear waste being dumped at sea.
- Emission: The production and discharge of something.
Ex: Emissions from car exhausts cause pollution around cities.
Ex: Carbon dioxide emissions must be reduced.
- Erosion: To gradually reduce or destroy.
Ex: Over-farming causes soil erosion.
- Drought: A prolonged period of abnormally low rainfall, leading to a shortage of water.
Ex: The severe drought this year has led to the loss of many lives.
- Pollution: Damage caused to water, air, land etc. by harmful substances or waste.
Ex: Environmental pollution must be a top priority of governments.
Ex: The air around the factory is very polluted.
- Sustainable: Causing little or no damage to the environment and therefore able to continue for a long time.
Ex: Countries need to promote sustainable development in order to protect the environment from further damage.
- Placebo: A drug which has no physical effects, used in pharmaceutical tests to compare the physical effects of taking a real drug from its psychological effects.
Ex: She was given a placebo, not the real drug, but she said she felt much better.
- Placebo Effect: The placebo effect is when someone’s condition improves because they think they are taking medicine.
Ex: She was given a placebo, not the real drug, but she said she felt much better- that’s the placebo effect.
- A side effect
Ex: An extra, usually bad, occurrence caused by taking a drug.
Ex: Drugs should not be tested on animals because there are many possible side effects.
Ex: Much of today’s modern medicine has side effects. I prefer alternative therapies.
- Proof: To show a particular result after a period of time.
Ex: The amount of evidence that scientists now have proves that climate change is being caused by humans.
Ex: We now have proof that climate change is caused by human activity.
- Experiment: A test done in order to learn something or to find out whether something works or is true
Ex: Experimenting on animals is necessary in order to discover if new drugs are dangerous or not.
Ex: Scientists are conducting experiments to test the effectiveness of the new drug.
- Gene: A part of the DNA in a cell which contains information in a special pattern received by each animal or plant from its parents, and which controls its physical development, behaviour, etc
Ex: Genes are an important factor in personality development.
Ex: The doctors think his illness was genetic. It came from his mother because she had the same illness when she was young.
- Genetic Engineering /Modification: Changing the structure of the genes of a living thing in order to make it healthier or stronger or more useful to humans.
Ex: There is evidence that genetically modified food is harmful to humans.
Ex: Some plants have been genetically engineered to be resistant to herbicides.
- Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs): Plants, animals or micro organisms that have changed through genetic engineering.
Ex: Most commercialised GMO crop plants are insect resistant and/or herbicide tolerant.
- Clone: A plant or animal which has the same genes as the original from which it was produced
Ex: The first animal to be cloned was Dolly the sheep.
Ex: I believe that cloning humans is unethical.
- Geoengineering: The deliberate large-scale intervention in the Earth’s climate system, in order to try and control global warming
Ex: Some scientists believe geoengineering is the only way to reduce the warming of the climate.
Ex: Controlling the weather by geoengineering is a possible solution to climate change, but it is controversial.
- Cyber: A prefix for things related to computers, especially the internet.
Ex: Cyberbullying via social media such as Facebook has become a major problem.
Ex: A cybercafé is a place where you can buy drinks and use computers at the same time.
- High-Tech / Hi-Tech: Using the most advanced and developed machines and methods.
Ex: Japan is a very high-tech country. Everyone has all the latest electronic gadgets.
- Theory: A formal statement of the rules on which a subject of study is based or of ideas which are suggested to explain a fact or event or, more generally, an opinion or explanation
Ex: There are two opposing theories on the causes of climate change – one says it is caused by humans, the other believe it is a natural cycle.
- The Arts
- The Arts: Art forms created by humans, divided into visual, literary, and performing.
Ex: The government should not waste money on the arts. This should be spent on public services instead.
- Culture: The systems of knowledge, experience, beliefs, values, attitudes, meanings, hierarchies, religion that are shared by a relatively large group of people.
Ex: The culture of a country is reflected in its art.
Ex: Cultural differences can cause problems if you do business in another country.
- Creative: Relating to or involving the imagination or original ideas, especially in the production of an artistic work.
Ex: He is an incredibly creative person – he’s written many books and plays and he can paint as well.
- Classical: Music that is considered to be part of a long especially formal tradition and to be of lasting value.
Ex: I prefer classical music such as Mozart and Bach to modern day pop music.
- Musical: A play or film in which part of the story is sung to music (noun). OR A skill in or great liking for music (adjective)
Ex: “The Phantom of the Opera” is one of the best musicals that I have ever seen.
Ex: Everyone in the family can play an instrument – they are very musical.
- Opera: An art form in which singers and musicians perform a dramatic work combining text and music, usually in a theatre.
Ex: Opera is not very popular amongst young people these days.
- Theatre: A building, room, or outside structure with rows of seats, each row usually higher than the one in front, from which people can watch a performance or other activity.
Ex: My hometown does not have any theatres. There are many in the capital though.
- Performance: A show or action involving the entertaining of other people by dancing, singing, acting, or playing music.
Ex: His performance as MacBeth was amazing.
Ex: There will be a performance of a famous play at the Lyceum Theatre tonight.
- Festival: An organized set of special events, such as musical, art or film performances.
Ex: The Cannes Film festival has some great movies this year.
Ex: The local council organizes a music festival in my town every year.
- Exhibition: An event at which objects such as paintings are shown to the public.
Ex: There will be an exhibition at the weekend to show all of his latest paintings.
Ex: His paintings were exhibited at the local art gallery over the weekend.
- Sculpture: The art of making two- or three-dimensional representative or abstract forms, especially by carving stone or wood.
Ex: The museum has many life-sized sculptures of past Kings and Queens of England.
- Abstract: A type of painting, drawing, or sculpture that uses shapes, lines, and colour in a way that does not try to represent the appearance of people or things.
Ex: Jackson Pollock is one of the most famous abstract artists. He famous for dripping and splattering paint onto his canvas
- Display: A collection of objects or pictures arranged for people to look at, or a performance or show for people to watch (= being shown).
Ex: Jackson Pollock’s most famous paintings are on display at the Tate Modern Art Gallery in London for 10 days.
- Inspired: To be filled with the urge or ability to do or feel something, especially to do something creative.
Ex: Shakespeare plays have inspired many young people to take up writing and acting.
Ex: His method of acting really inspires me.
- Artefact: An object that is made by a person, such as a tool or a decoration, especially one that is of historical interest.
Ex: The museum in town has many artefacts that were found in the local area. Most are tools from the Stone Age.
- Choreograph: Compose the sequence of steps and moves for a ballet or other performance of dance.
Ex: Their dance routines had been carefully choreographed so there would be no mistakes.
- Children and the Family
- Nuclear family: Family group consisting of a pair of adults and their children
Ex: Most households in the Western world tend to be nuclear families.
- Extended family: Larger than the nuclear family – consisting of aunts, uncles, and cousins all living nearby or in the same household.
Ex: If you live with your extended family they can help to look after the children.
- Single-parent: A parent, not living with a spouse or partner, who has most of the day-to-day responsibilities in raising the child or children.
Ex: Some people believe that it is not good for children to grow up in a single-parent household.
- Relatives: Group of people related by blood or marriage
Ex: Relatives, such as grandparents, can play an important role in helping to raise children.
- Siblings: Brothers or sisters
Ex: I have three siblings – one brother and two sisters.
- Adolescent: A young person who is developing into an adult
Ex: Children can sometimes cause more problems for their parents when they become adolescents.
- Dependents: Someone who depends on you for financial support, such as a child or family member who does not work
Ex: My dependents will be well-looked after when I die as I have left a lot of money to them in my will.
- Authoritarian: Demanding that people obey completely and refusing to allow them freedom to act as they wish
Ex: His father was very authoritarian and he used to scare me quite a lot.
- Strict: Strongly limiting someone’s freedom to behave as they wish, or likely to severely punish someone if they do not obey.
Ex: Some parents believe that they have to very strict with their children to ensure they behave well.
- Birth control / Contraception: (the use of) any of various methods intended to prevent a woman becoming pregnant
Ex: One of the reasons for the falling number of births in developing countries is birth control. Medical clinics often distribute free contraception.
- Birth Rate: The number of babies born over a given time
Ex: The birth rate has been falling in many countries.
- Bring Up / Upbringing: To care for a child until he or she is an adult, often giving him or her particular beliefs
Ex: Children should be brought up to respect their parents.
Ex: I had a very good upbringing.
- Raise: To take care of a person (or an animal or plant) until they are completely grown
Ex: Her parents raised her very well as she is now a very kind and considerate young woman.
- Child Development: The biological, psychological and emotional changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence
Ex: There is no doubt that there are factors external to the family that significantly impact on a child’s development.
- Childcare: Care for children provided by either the government, an organization, or a person, while parents are at work or are away for another reason
Ex: Cheap childcare is very important in order to allow mother’s to return to work.
- Divorce: An official or legal process to end a marriage
Ex: My parents divorced when I was
Ex: Divorce is very common these days.
- Separation: An arrangement, but not necessarily done legally, by which two married people stop living together as a couple
Ex: Me and my partner are having a trial separation. Hopefully we can sort things out.
- Child Neglect: A form of child abuse where there is an ongoing failure to meet a child’s basic needs, such as being left without adequate food, clothes, shelter, medicine etc.
Ex: Social services will intervene if a child has been neglected.
- Dysfunctional Family: A family where there is conflict, misbehavior, and often child neglect, resulting in poor emotional and physical health
Ex: The child comes from a very dysfunctional family. The father was violent and is now in prison and the mother has a drugs problem.
- Emotional Security: To feel happy and secure from having enough love, acceptance and respect
Ex: The most important factor leading to a fulfilled and happy life for a child is emotional security.
- Well-adjusted: Reasonable and has good judgment and their behaviour is not difficult or strange
Ex: A child brought up by responsible parents and provided with emotional security will grow up to be very well-adjusted.
- Responsible Parent: Having good judgement and the ability to act correctly when bringing up a child e.g. ensuring they are not in any danger
Ex: If you have children it is very important to be responsible parents.
- Formative years: A period of a person’s life, usually childhood, that has a big influence on the person they become and the rest of that person’s life
Ex: If things go wrong for someone in their formative years, it can have an impact on their adult life.
- Adoption: Taking on the legal responsibilities as parent of a child that is not one’s biological child
Ex: If a couple can’t have a child they may decide to adopt.
- Fostering: Taking on the responsibilities for a child in place of the child’s natural parents but without legally adopting the child.
Ex: Fostering a child can be a very fulfilling experience.
Ex: They have decided to become foster parents.
- Nurture: Care for and protect (someone or something) while they are growing
Ex: It is the family that can provide a supportive, secure, and nurturing environment, which is crucial to the way in which a child becomes an adult.
- Overprotective Parents: Wishing to protect a child too much
Ex: Children who have had overprotective parents do not build up a strong character to deal with the outside world on their own.
- Spoiled Child: A child who shows bad behaviour from overindulgence by their parents
Ex: Children who are given everything that they demand from their parents may become very spoiled.