Ideas “khủng” từ Simon cho 12 topics phổ biến

Vào lúc 20h ngày 23/02/2017 dương lịch,  cô Tố Linh đã phát hiện ra 1 loại thuốc quý hiếm chữa các bệnh “khô lời”, “cạn lời”, “hạn hán lời”, “sa mạc lời” của những sĩ tử Ielts trong quá trình vật lộn với bài writing task 2 và speaking part 3. Thuốc không những được tổng hợp ideas từ 12 chủ đề vô cùng quen thuộc nhưng cực “khó nhai nuốt” trong đề thi Ielts thực tế, mà còn có chứng nhận ISO 9001:2017 hẳn hoi bởi Doctor: Simon –vị giám khảo Ielts lão luyện, thâm niên tận tâm trong nghề,bảo đảm giúp các bạn Ielts-er chém gió trôi chảy, ào ào bão lũ, hồn nhiên vô tư rinh điểm về dinh nha!

Idea “khủng” cho bài thi IELTS

1.Crime

Police and Crime Prevention

The job of the polices is to catch criminals

They must also prevent crime and make communities safer

There should be an increase in the number of police officers on the streets Police officers should be seen as part of the community

They should be involved with education and prevention The police should be in close contact with schools

They should focus on young people who have dropped out of school. These teenagers may become involved with gangs

Punishments/Prisons

Fines are used as punishment for minor crimes

If the crime is more serious, prison is the most common punishment Some criminals pose a threat to society

They are put in prison to ensure the safety of other citizens

Negatives of Prisons

Criminals are put together

They make friends with other offenders

Many prisoners re-offend when they are released A criminal record makes finding a job more difficult Rehabilitation

Another aim of prisons is rehabilitation

Prisoners receive education of vocational training Prisoners should learn personal skills and specific job skills Punishment could make prisoners’ behavior worse Rehabilitation aims to make them better citizens Rehabilitated prisoners are less likely to re-offend

Capital punishment

Supporters say that capital punishment deters crime

Fear of the death penalty stops people from committing offences The death penalty shows that crime is not tolerated

It is a form of revenge

The cost of imprisonment is avoided

The offender cannot pose a threat to others

Against Capital Punishment

Innocent people could be wrongly convicted and executed Crime rates are not necessarily reduced

Many criminals do not think they will be caught Capital punishment is not a good deterrent

Executing prisoners creates a violent culture and encourages revenge We have no right to take another human life

Community service

Community service is a way to reform offenders It could be a solution to prison overcrowding

It avoids the cost of imprisonment

It makes offenders useful in their local communities

They are required to clean streets or talk to school groups Offenders repay their community

They avoid the negative influence that prison can have

Against community service

Community service is not a sufficient punishment Criminals should be locked up, away from their victims

Crime in the Media

Crime is one of the main subjects of most news programs.

The mass media focus on violent and sensational crimes

This lead to fear of crime among the public

Sensational stories attract more viewers or readers

The media report crime stories in order to increase their audience

2.Education

Benefits of education

Education gives people knowledge and skills

People with qualification are more likely to find work They can earn a higher salary

They can contribute positively to society

Schools aim to teach young people moral values such as tolerance and sharing Schools prepare children to be members of a society

Benefits of Studying Abroad

Foreign institutions may offer better courses

Many students want to attend a prestigious university

The best universities employ teachers who are experts in their fields Qualifications gained abroad can open the door to better job opportunities Living abroad can broaden students’ horizons

Overseas students are exposed to different cultures and customs. They become more independent

They are responsible for cooking, cleaning and paying bills They will learn a foreign language

Drawback of studying abroad

Living and studying abroad can be difficult

Students have problems with paperwork such as visa applications The language barrier can be a problem

Students have to find accommodation and pay bills Studying in a foreign language is challenging

Living alone in an unfamiliar culture can cause homesickness

Technology in Education: Advantages

Technology is a powerful tool to engage students

Technology can make lessons much more interesting Students can do research using online resources Students can study at their own place

Adults can take distance learning courses

Students can study whenever and wherever they want Students also learn skills which are useful for their future jobs For example, they learn to write reports using a word processor

Technology in Education: Disadvantages

People rely too much on computers

Young learners do not become proficient in some basic skills They use word processors and spelling may suffer

People should be able to write a letter by hand Technology is no substitute for a real teacher Learners need a structured course

An experienced teacher knows what materials to choose Computers are expensive to maintain and can be unreliable

Technology in Education: Opinion

Institutions should supplement traditional teaching with the use of technology Technology is part of everyday life

It can enhance a teacher’s lessons

Students can use online resources to help with homework Students must still learn to write by hand

They should still use traditional sources of information such as books

Education in Developing countries: Problems

Children often have to work from an early age

There are no schools in many areas

Families do not have access to books or computers Literacy rates are often low

People in developing countries need knowledge and skills Education is the key to improving the economy of these countries

 Education in developing countries: solutions

Developed countries could help developing nations by providing money They could invest in schools and technology

They could supply the funds to build schools and pay for teachers Children need to have access to free schooling

Computer equipment could be donated

The Internet can expose students to a world of knowledge and information Governments should make education compulsory for all children

They should encourage parents to send their children to school Governments of developed and developing countries must work together

Higher education: Advantages (also see “benefits of education”)

There are many benefits to going to university

A degree can open the door to better employment prospects Economies are becoming increasingly knowledge-based Most jobs require specific knowledge and skills

Skilled workers are needed for sectors such as information technology and engineering Repetitive manual jobs are now done by machine

Many factories have moved to developing countries

Higher education: Disadvantages

A healthy economy needs a wide range of workers

Some manual workers will always be needed

A university degree is not necessary for many service professions Practical training is more important in some industries

In the UK, for example, there is currently a shortage of plumbers Their services are therefore becoming more and more expensive

Advantage of Home-schooling

Some parents decide to educate their children at home Some families live in isolated areas with poor transport Other parents are not satisfied with local schools

Parents can respond to what their children need and how they learn best One-to-one lessons allow much faster progress

The child can work at his or her own pace Discipline problems are avoided by home-schooling

Disadvantages of home-schooling

Most parents do not have the time to educate their children at home One parent would need to give up work

School subjects are normally taught by up to ten different teachers Most parents do not have the necessary knowledge or resources Private tutors are expensive

Children will miss out on the social experience that school offers At school, children learn how to get on with each other

Home-schooled children may lack social skills Schools offer a better overall educational experience

Bad behavior in schools: causes

Bad behavior is due to a lack of structure and discipline

There are too many children in some classes Large classes are difficult to manage

May disruptive students come from an unstable family background Other parents are too lenient and spoil their children

Some children are used to getting whatever they want Schools can do very little if they are not supported by parents

Bad behavior in schools: solutions

Schools need a clear code of conduct

Schools need a clear set of rules about behavior They need to create a positive working atmosphere

Teachers must have the power to punish disruptive students Schools should remove difficult children from lessons Schools need to work closely with parents

Discipline could be lacking at home Parents must support the school rules

They should take responsibility for their children’s behavior

Corporal Punishment: Opinion

Corporal Punishment is not a good idea

Physical punishment is a way of controlling children using fear This does not promote trust between adults and children

Children who are punished physically may become shy or resentful Corporal punishment creates an atmosphere of fear and anger

Single Sex Education: Advantages

Some people believe that male and female students should go to separate schools This is often for religious or cultural reasons

Discipline problems might be avoided by separating boys and girls Boys and girls may learn in different ways and have different needs Student at single-sex schools often get better exam grades.

Single-sex Education: Disadvantages

Separating boys and girls is unnecessary

It is unhealthy in terms of children’s social development Many coeducational schools are extremely successful

A mixed-sex environment is more representative of real life

Coeducational schools provide children with better social skills for adult life

Advantages of Streaming (grouping children according to ability)

Some schools separate students according to their academic ability Teachers can work at the right speed for their students

Teachers can plan more suitable lessons High-level groups may progress faster

Lower level groups can benefits from a slower pace

Some teachers and parents support streaming for these reasons

Disadvantages of Streaming

Grouping by ability may have a negative impact on students Children do not want to be seen as less intelligent than others Streaming could damage students’ self esteem

They may lose motivation

Students from wealthier families tend to be better prepared Children from poorer families may receive less support from parents Mixed ability classes encourage everyone to achieve their potential

3.Environment

Global warming 

Gases such as carbon dioxide trap heat from the sun This causes global temperatures to rise

This process is known as the greenhouse effect

Human activity is a major factor in the rise of the greenhouse gases Factories and vehicles produce emissions and exhaust fumes

Many developing countries are becoming industrialized The number of cars on our streets is growing

Cheap air travel is allowing more people to fly

Effects of Global Warming

Global warming will have a significant impact on our planet Rising temperature will cause melting of the polar ice caps Sea levels will rise

We can expect more extreme weather conditions Flooding and droughts may become more common

 Impacts of humans on the environment

The increasing world population is putting pressure on natural resources Fossil fuels like oil and gas are running out

We are destroying wildlife habitats

We have cut down enormous areas of rainforest

This has led to the extinction of many species of animals and plants

Solutions to environment problems 

Governments could introduce laws to limit emissions from factories They should invest in renewable energy from solar, wind or water power They could impose “green taxes” on drivers and airlines companies

Government campaigns should promote recycling Natural areas and wild animals should be protected Individuals should also try to be greener

We should take fewer flights abroad for holidays We should take public transport rather than driving We should choose products with less packaging We should recycle as much as possible

Waste/rubbish

The amount of waster we produce has increased This problem is a result of our consumer culture Products are not made to last

If something breaks, we throw it way and buy a new one Advertisers encourage is to buy the newest fashions Packaging is an important part of selling

Most foods are sold in non-biodegradable plastics packaging The amount of household waste is growing

This waste ends up in landfill sites

Litter

People do not think about the consequences of dropping rubbish They assume that somebody is pad to clean the streest

Plastic packaging does not break down easily

Most of the litter seen on streets is fast food packaging

Recycling and other solutions

Companies should make goods that last longer They should not use so much packaging

Governments should be stricter, about waster produced by companies They should put legal limits on packaging

Consumers should avoid buying over-packaged products We should recycle and reuse useful materials.

There are collection banks for glass, paper and plastic bottles Households can use several rubbish bins to separate waste Recycling saves energy and raw materials.

Nuclear Power: Positives

There are several benefits to build more nuclear power stations Fossil fuel like oil and gas are running out

Nuclear power is a sustainable energy source

It can be used to produce electricity without wasting natural resources It could be replace the use of natural resources like coal, oil or gas Nuclear power stations are cleaner than fossil fuel power stations They could help to reduce carbon emissions that cause global warming The risks of accidents are being reduced

Nuclear Power: negatives 

Opponents of nuclear power worry about the safety of power stations The building of new nuclear power stations is unpopular

Nobody wants to live near one

Nuclear waste disposal is a significant problem

There is currently no way to decontaminate radioactive material People worry that terrorists could steal radioactive materials

It is safer to produce energy from solar, wind or water power.

4.Global issues

Problems in developing countries

Developing countries face a range if problems Standards of healthcare and education are low

Life expectancy is usually lower than in developed countries

There is a lack of infrastructure, employment and good quality housing Many people are forced to live in poverty

Food, drinking water and basic medicines are in short supply

How to help developing countries

The best form of help for developing countries is development aid Richer nations can help by investing in long-term projects

Governments and charities can help by building new houses and schools Globalization may also help developing countries

Multi-national companies can creating jobs in developing countries

On the other hand, many people emigrate to find work in richer countries They often sand money back home to their families

This money helps to improve the standard of living in developing countries

Immigration

Some people move to another countries in search of a better life Many immigrants come from less developed countries

Richer, industrialized countries may offer opportunities for employment Free healthcare and schooling are available in some developed countries

Other people migrate to a foreign country to improve their academic qualifications

Positives of immigration and Multi-cultural societies

From an economic perspective, immigration can be extremely positive Many immigrants have skills that are needed in the country they move to Immigrants who find work contribute to the economy of their new country Many immigrants send money home to help family members

Immigration also creates cultural diversity

People of many different nationalities learn to live together

This can help people to become more open-minded and tolerant

Negatives of Immigration

Some people believe that immigrants take jobs that should go to local people Some immigrant workers work longer hours for less money

Companies might pay lower salaries to immigrant workers Unemployment rates could rise if there are too many immigrants

Opinions about Immigration

Immigration can help the economy of a country It can create multi-cultural societies

However, immigration needs to be controlled

In many countries, immigrants need visas or work permit

Governments should stop companies from exploiting immigrant workers Foreign and local workers should have the right to equal pay and conditions

Positives of Globalization

Business of becoming increasingly international

Multi-national companies do business across the world

Companies like MacDonald’s can be seen on high streets in most cities Goods are produced in one country and sold in many others

A global economy means free trade between countries This can strengthen political relationships

Globalization can also create opportunities for employment It encourages investment in less developed countries

It could reduce poverty in the developing world

Negatives of Globalization

Globalization is not always beneficial to everyone Companies can move to countries where labour is cheap This creates redundancies, or job losses

Employees cannot be confident that they have stable jobs

Companies sometimes exploit their employees in developing countries Global trade creates more waste and pollution

The future of Globalization

There should be global regulations for salaries and working conditions Governments should impose laws to protect the environment

5.Government and Society

What governments can do

Governments provide public services like healthcare and education They support people who are living in poverty or unable to work Governments raise money by taxing working people

They can spend money on resources and campaigns They can introduce new laws

They can impose taxes

They can raise people’s awareness of issues (e.g climate change/healthy eating) They can influence people’s habits and opinions

They can create jobs

They can regulate the activities of companies such as banks They can provide resources for schools

They are also responsible for the security and well-being of their citizens They control armed forces and police forces

Public services

Governments pay the salaries of public sector workers like police officers and teachers The necessary money is raised by taxing people’s income

Free education and healthcare may be provided by the state

Some governments control public transport systems and even TV channels In other countries, these services are provided by private companies  Some people believe that competition between private companies is good It helps to improve quality while bringing prices down

Other people think that essential services should be free Governments should pay for them

Censorship: Opinion

Governments can censor what public sees or reads in the media To a certain extent censorship is necessary

We should use censorship to protect children from violent images Some computer games involve killing people or committing crimes The Internet also needs to be controlled

Many websites show pornography and violence

There should be age limits for websites and computers games

Parents need to take responsibility for checking what their children watch It is impossible for governments to control everything we see

Video cameras in public places

The use of CCTV is becoming widespread

Video cameras have been installed in many public places They are supposed to protect us and deter criminals

Many people think that this surveillance violates our privacy

The authorities could build databases with our pictures and identities We should not be treated like criminals

Smart cards: Positives

Governments will probably introduce a digital identification card system Smart cards will have benefits and drawbacks

They could help to reduce crime

They could hold personal information, such as DNA Digital bank cards could contain fingerprint information  It would be very difficult for criminals to use a stolen card

It would be easier for police to identify people and catch criminals

Smart cards: Negatives

Many people are worried about losing their privacy

Governments could store all our personal and medical information This information could be used by insurance companies

Employers could check our health records

People with Disabilities

People with disabilities should be treated the same as everybody else They should have the same rights as other people

They should have access to the same jobs as other citizens Discriminations against disabled people is illegal in many countries Ramps and lifts for wheelchairs should be installed in public buildings

Support teacher can be employed to help children with learning difficulties

6.Health

Diet

The human body requires a balanced diet

An unhealthy diet can cause various health problems Obesity, diabetes and heart disease are on the increase

Many people nowadays rely on fast food or pre-prepared meals These foods often contain too much fat, salt and sugar

They are cheap to buy and very easy to prepare

Many young people have grown up on a diet of convenience foods Populations in developed countries are increasingly overweight

Exercise

Regular exercise is essential in maintaining a healthy body

Exercise burns calories and helps to build healthy bones and muscles Doctors advise exercising at least three times a week for 20 minutes Most people nowadays lead a sedentary lifestyle

We tend to walk less and do desk jobs Most adults relax by watching television

Children play video games rather than doing outdoor sports

In the past, people were more active in their jobs and at home

Government’s Role

Governments have a significant role to play in reducing obesity

More and more people, including young children are seriously overweight They are at risk of heart disease and diabetes

This situation will increase the burden on hospitals and taxpayers Hospitals rely on the government for money and resources Governments should promote a healthy diet and regular exercise There should be more time for sports on school timetables Unhealthy junk food should be banned from school menus People need information about what foods contain

Food packaging must show the food’s nutritional content

The British Government recommends eating five portions of fruit and vegetables per day

State Health system: advantages

Good healthcare should be available to everyone for free

State healthcare is paid by the government using money from taxes Everyone has access to the same quality of care and treatment Private healthcare is unfair because only wealthy people can afford it

The National Health Service in the UK provides free healthcare for every resident

Private Healthcare: advantages

State hospitals are often very large and difficult to run

Private hospitals have shorter waiting lists for operations and appointments

Patients can benefit from faster treatment

Many people prefer to pay for more a personal service Patients have their own room and more comfortable facilities

Alternative medicine: Positives

People are increasingly using alternative medicines to treat illnesses. For example, acupuncture can be used to treat backache

Herbal medicines can be used to treat allergies or viruses

Many patients report positive experiences with these treatments Some traditional cures have been used for hundreds of years

Alternative medicine: Negatives

Many alternative medicines have not been tested scientifically They may have no beneficial effect at all

They may cause unknown side effects

People should trust the opinions of qualified doctors

An illness could get worse without treatment from a doctor

Stress

Modern lifestyles are increasingly stressful People work long hours with strict deadlines

Our busy lifestyles mean we have less time to relax Unemployment is a major cause of stress

Children may be affected by their parents’ relationship problems Tests and exams can also cause stress

How to reduce stress

Stress can be reduced by taking regular exercise and eating a healthy diet It is also important to get sufficient sleep and make leisure time a priority People should work less overtime and take regular holidays

Schools have started to employ psychologists

They can offer emotional support to students

They can help students to cope with exam stress

7.Sport and Leisure

Arguments against Professional/competitive sport

Sport has become a business

Professional sport encourages people to compete for money Many sports stars are only concerned about money and fame Some athletes take drugs in order to win at any cost Competitors are often selfish and rude

They are not good role models for children All sports should be amateur

Sports should be leisure activities rather than jobs

People should do sporting activities for enjoyment and health reasons Taking part is more important than winning

Arguments for Professional sport

Professional sports are the same as any other business Many people are employed in the sports industry

People should be able to use their talents to earn a salary Sports stars entertain millions of people

Money is necessary to improve facilities and train athletes

The level of professional sport is much higher than that of amateur sport

Arguments for Competitive sport

Competition is a natural instinct in humans

In daily life we compete to get jobs or the highest grades

Sports are a safe form of competition

Competition is healthy because it pushes us to give our best Competitors and fans can release energy and aggression Supporters of teams feel a sense of belonging to a community

Opinion: professional sport salaries are too high

Sports professionals earn too much money They do not provide a vital service

Football players, for example, earn enormous salaries by simply kicking a ball We could all live happily without professional football

Life would be difficult without doctors, engineers and other vital professionals. Society does not seem to value these professions as highly as professional sport Sports salaries should be compatible with the wages most people earn

Opinion: professional sport salaries are fair

It is fair that the best professional earn a lot of money Sport is a multi-million-pound industry

There is a large audience of sports fans Sports on television attract many viewers

Sports stars have dedicated hours of practice to developing their fitness and skills Only the most talented among them will reach the top

A sports career many only last 10 years

Sports fans are willing to pay to support their teams

Sports and Politics

Some people think that sport and politics should remain separate

Governments are involved in the hosting of sporting events such as the Olympics. These events attract investment and create jobs.

The Olympic Games are an advertisement for the host nation They attract huge numbers of visitors and sports fans Wealthy countries tend to hold these events

Developing countries should be given the chance to become hosts

8.Television, Internet and Phone

Positives of television

Watching television is a good way to relax

It is many people’s favorite way to wind down after a hard day at work Television programs can be entertaining and enjoyable

Viewers have access to a huge variety of entertainment channels Television brings the best comedians, musicians and actors into our homes Programmers can also be informative and educational

News coverage makes the public aware of events around the world

Documentaries can make learning more interesting

Negatives of Television

Television is having a negative impact on society

Some people link violence on television with crime rates in the real world Children copy the behavior they see on the screen

Children are less healthy because they spend less time palying Advertisers direct their marketing at children

Most programs do not require much thought Watching TV is a waste of time

Opinions about Television

Television has many benefits However, it can be addictive

Children should play outside rather than sit in front of a screen all day Behaviour shown on TV can influence people

Parents should choose carefully what their children watch

Children should not be exposed to violence, swearing or sexual images Advertising during children’s programs should be strictly controlled

TV companies should make more positive, educational programs

Positives of the Internet

There are many advantages to using the Internet

It gives us instant access to information on almost any subject Shops and other services are now available online

People can buy goods and services from the comfort of their homes The Internet is starting to replace other forms of entertainment

It has revolutionized communication

We can keep in touch by email or instant messenger services Video messaging is becoming common for business meetings

Negatives of the internet

Many websites contain offensive content Some sites show violent or sexual images

Parents find it difficult to control what their children see online They do not always know who their children are chatting to

With so many websites it is difficult to search for good information Criminals increasingly use the Internet to steal people’s money

Internet compared to newspaper and books

Newspapers and books are now published online as well as in print We can read the news in any language from any country in the world

It costs nothing to publish or access information on the Internet The Internet allows anybody to publish their own writing Newspaper articles and books are written by professionals Professionals produce better quality writing than amateur People still buy newspapers and books because they are portable People do not like reading from a screen

Positives of Mobile Phones

The mobile phone is the most popular gadget in today’s world Mobile phones have revolutionized the way we communicate

We can stay in touch with family, friends and colleagues wherever we are  Users can send text messages, surf the Internet, take photos and listen to music Mobiles have also become fashion accessories

Negatives of Mobile Phones

Mobiles phones can be a problem in some public places

Ringing phones cause disturbance in cinemas and school lessons Some people are not aware that others can hear their conversations Mobile phones may also interfere with electronic equipment

Their waves could cause damage to our brains Mobile phones can also be a dangerous distraction

Using a phone while driving reduces the driver’s concentration Mobile phones are a popular target for thieves

Opinion about Mobile Phones

The benefits of mobile phones outweigh the drawbacks We need to use these phones with care

9.Tourism

Positives of Tourism

Tourism is a popular leisure activity People go on holiday to relax and have fun Tourists can experience different cultures

They can sunbathe on beaches or go sight-seeing Travelling abroad opens our minds

We can learn to speak other languages

The tourist trade is vital for some economies

It creates employment in services like accommodation, transport and entertainment Some areas rely on tourism for their income

Tourists spend money

Tourism attracts investment from multi-national companies It helps to improve the standard of living

Low-cost airlines are making it cheaper to travel abroad

Negative effects of tourism

Tourism can have a negative effect on the natural environment

The building of facilities and infrastructure can destroy the habitat of wild animals Beautiful beaches are spoilt by the building of hotels

Tourism creates pollution and waste It puts pressure on local resources

Local traditional and cultures may be endangered A rise in the cost of living affects local people

The price of goods, services and housing may increase significantly

The future of tourism

Government should introduce laws to protect natural environments and local cultures Tourism should have a low impact on wildlife

Renewable resources like solar or water power should be used Waste should be recycled

Local businesses such as farms should be supported

10.Transport

Traffic problems

Traffic congestion is caused by commuters travelling to work Most people live in the suburbs outside city centre Commuters tend to travel at the same time of day

They tend to travel alone

Cars and road space are not used efficiently This causes traffic jams during the rush hour

Traffic solutions

In order to reduce traffic we should change our working habits The internet can now be used to connect people

More people could work from home Meetings can be held as video conferences Workers could be given flexible timetables Another solution would be to tax drivers

Workers should share their cars and travel together In London, for example, there is a congestion charge This helps to raise money for better public transport Public transport needs to be reliable and efficient

Positives of Public transport

We need to reduce our dependence on cars Parking a car can be extremely difficult in big cities

Well-designed transport systems are comfortable and convenient Modern public transport can be fast and cheap

Public transport can help to reduce pollution in cities Investment in buses and trains will ease traffic congestion Buses can be given special lands to avoid traffic

Negatives of public transport

Public transport if often slow and unreliable

Metro systems and trains are often dirty and crowded People feel like “sardines in a can”

Cars are much more comfortable

Road safety

Driving while tired or drunk is extremely dangerous Mobile phones can be a dangerous distraction for drivers They draw the driver’s attention away from the road

The use of phones while driving has been banned in many countries Punishments are becoming stricter

Television campaigns are used to remind people to drive safely Speed cameras have become more common

Speed bumps are another form of traffic calming

Many streets are designed with the aim of slowing traffic down

11.Work

The benefits of staying in the same job for life

Employees have a stable career with one employer They have a good pension and health insurance Their salaries gradually increase

They may be promoted within the organization They demonstrate loyalty

Experienced staff can be trusted with more responsibility They become part of a team

There is a clearly defined path for development

The benefits of not staying in the same job

People often change jobs in order to further their career Another company may offer a promotion or a higher salary People who change jobs can gain experience

They can learn different skills

Changing jobs is interesting and challenging People can retrain in a different occupation

In a fast-changing world workers need to be flexible People need to develop a range of experience and skills

Self-employment

Nowadays, it is easy to set up a company

The Internet provides a global marketplace

Self-employment offers greater freedom than working for a company However, there are risks to starting a new business

Self-employed people may face financial difficulties Many businesses fail to make a profit

There is less stability in self-employment

There are no benefits like pensions, sick pay and holiday pay

Self-employment involved hard work, long hours and total responsibility

Unemployment

Unemployment is a big problem for individuals, communities and society Some people are unable to find a job

They may not have the sufficient level of education or qualifications They may find themselves homeless

Unemployment causes frustration and stress

Jobless people may become involved in crime as a means to get money The unemployed need careers advice

Governments need to provide vocational courses and retraining

Unemployment benefits: positives

Some governments pay unemployment benefits in order to help jobless people Unemployed people need financial support until they find a new job

By claiming benefits they can continue to pay for their homes

The benefits system helps to reduce poverty, homelessness and crime

Unemployment benefits: negatives

Some people claim benefits rather than working They become dependent on the government They are not motivated to find a job

The benefits system is a burden on taxpayers

All citizens should work to earn a living and support themselves Receiving benefits affects people’s self esteem

Work/Life Balance

It is important to achieve a balance between work time and leisure or family time Too much work can result in stress and poor health

“workaholics” may neglect their families and friends People need to take regular holidays

Companies should be expect employees to work overtime

Nowadays, many people work part-time or have flexible working hours Technology allow people to work from home

Many companies provide childcare facilities

A good work/ life balance can raise job satisfaction Happy, healthy workers are more productive

Technology and work

Internet, fax and mobile phone technologies have revolutionized working life Workers can communicate via email, online networks and video conferencing Technology can connect workers in different countries

It gives people more freedom

It can also save time and money

Some people believe that offices could disappear in the future Virtual online offices may replace them

Child labour

In some countries, children are exploited They do repetitive jobs for very low pay

Children are often used in agriculture and factory work

The employment of children is prohibited in other countries

Many people think that children should be free to enjoy their childhood Governments should make education a priority

They should build new schools

They should supply the resources to educate children

Children need to be given the knowledge and skills for adult life

12.Advertising

Positives of Advertising

Advertising is a key part of modern business Companies need to tell customers about their products Advertisements inform us about the choices we have

Advertising is a creative industry that employs many people Without advertising we would have less choice

Without advertising there would be higher unemployment Advertising is a form of modern art

People enjoy adverts

Negatives of Advertising

Advertising manipulates people

It aims to persuade people that buying a product will make them happier Advertisers focus on selling a brand image

They use glamorous, successful people We now live in a consumer culture

We are persuaded to follow the latest trend

We are encouraged to associate certain brands with a higher status Advertisers often aim their marketing at children

Children can easily be influenced by advertisements. Children put pressure on parents to buy them things

Opinions about Advertising

Advertising should be regulated

Advertising aimed at children should be controlled or even banned Unhealthy foods should not be marketed in a way that attracts children Products that can be risk to healthy should display warnings

In some countries it is illegal to advertise cigarettes on television Warnings must be displayed on cigarette packets

However, advertising is necessary in free market economies It creates demand for products

Governments should only censor false information or products that are harmful

 

 

 

 

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