Trong IELTS writing Task 2 các bạn sẽ gặp phải khá nhiều dạng đề phổ biến như: Argumentative Essay, Discussion Essay, Account Essay… Đối với mỗi dạng, chúng ta sẽ có một cách viết đoạn mở đầu (introduction) khác nhau. Trong bài tiếp theo trong chuỗi bài giảng luyện thi IELTS hôm nay, cô sẽ hướng dẫn các bạn cách nhận biết cũng như cách viết argumentative essay, một trong những dạng essay phổ biến nhất trong bài thi IELTS WRTING. Ở cuối bài cô đính kèm một vài bài samples band 9 của thầy Simon nhé. Chúng ta cùng vào bài.
Định nghĩa – argumentative essay là gì?
Argumentative essay là dạng essay mà các em sẽ đưa ra những ý kiến, lập trường, lí lẽ để bảo vệ ý kiến của mình trước một vấn đề được đưa ra. (Đồng ý, không đồng ý, nửa đồng ý, vì sao?)
Phần 1 – Cách nhận biết đề bài argumentative essay:
Ví dụ chúng ta có đề bài sau: Some people think the main purpose of schools is to turn children into good citizens and workers, rather than to benefit them as individuals.
To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Phân tích: Các em nên nhớ rằng đề bài IELTS luôn có 2 phần:
Phần 1 (giống nhau ở hầu hết các dạng essay khác): Phần đầu là phần background đưa ra nội dung chính mà chúng ta sẽ phải viết.
Phần 2 (khác nhau tùy theo dạng essay): Phần yêu cầu đề bài (phần in đậm và nghiêng)
|Yêu cầu đề bài là các dạng câu hỏi sau thì đó là đề bài argumentative essay.
Phần 2 – Cách làm bài
A/Phần mở bài (introduction) 2 – 3 câu:
- Paraphrase lại đề bài: 1 – 2 câu.
- Thesis statement (giới thiệu nội dung chính của toàn bài): Trả lời trực tiếp câu hỏi của đề bài – các em hoàn toàn đồng ý/không đồng ý hoặc một phần đồng ý với ý kiến được đưa ra, 1 câu.
Ví dụ: Some people think the main purpose of schools is to turn children into good citizens and workers, rather than to benefit them as individuals. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Các em sẽ có 3 cách giải quyết (Lưu ý: dù chọn cách nào, thì câu chủ đề chính của các em đều phải rõ ràng không được mập mờ, các em tham khảo các câu cô in đậm – gạch dưới):
People have different views about what the main purpose of schools should be. Personally, I agree that a school’s role is to prepare children to be productive members of society.
Many people argue that the main role of schools is to prepare children for their future jobs. However, I believe that the purpose of education should be to help children to grow as individuals.
3/ Balanced view or neutral:
To a certain extent I agree that the role of schools is to prepare children to be productive members of society. However, I also believe that the education process has a positive impact on us as individuals.
B/Phần thân bài (2 đoạn văn, mỗi đoạn từ 5 – 7 câu)
Với những em chọn cách mở bài 1 và 2 completely agree/disagree, các em hoàn toàn có thể dùng hai đoạn của phần thân bài để support cho ý chính mà em đã chọn để viết trong phần mở bài (Ví dụ: 3.1, ở phần 3). HOẶC: Các em cũng có thể dùng đoạn thân bài 1 để support ý mà các em không đồng thuận, và thân bài 2 để support ý mà các em đồng ý. (Ví dụ; 3.2, ở phần 3).
- Để chuyển đổi ý một cách trôi chảy các em nên lưu ý sử dụng các transition đảo ngược như on the other hand, however, nevertheless, etc. để bắt đầu đoạn thân bài 2. (cách dùng này cô đã phân tích ở bài giảng trước)
- Cấu trúc chung của phần thân bài cô cũng đã chia sẽ một lần ở bài giảng sau: http://bit.ly/1EdSNSl.
C/ Kết bài (1 – 2 câu):
Phần 3 – Bài mẫu
Ví dụ 3.1: Universities should accept equal numbers of male and female students in every subject. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
In my opinion, men and women should have the same educational opportunities. However, I do not agree with the idea of accepting equal proportions of each gender in every university subject.
Having the same number of men and women on all degree courses is simply unrealistic. Student numbers on any course depend on the applications that the institution receives. If a university decided to fill courses with equal numbers of males and females, it would need enough applicants of each gender. In reality, many courses are more popular with one gender than the other, and it would not be practical to aim for equal proportions. For example, nursing courses tend to attract more female applicants, and it would be difficult to fill these courses if fifty per cent of the places needed to go to males.
Apart from the practical concerns expressed above, I also believe that it would be unfair to base admission to university courses on gender. Universities should continue to select the best candidates for each course according to their qualifications. In this way, both men and women have the same opportunities, and applicants know that they will be successful if they work hard to achieve good grades at school. If a female student is the best candidate for a place on a course, it is surely wrong to reject her in favour of a male student with lower grades or fewer qualifications.
In conclusion, the selection of university students should be based on merit, and it would be both impractical and unfair to change to a selection procedure based on gender.
Ví dụ 3.2: Some people believe that hobbies need to be difficult to be enjoyable. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Some hobbies are relatively easy, while others present more of a challenge. Personally, I believe that both types of hobby can be fun, and I therefore disagree with the statement that hobbies need to be difficult in order to be enjoyable.
On the one hand, many people enjoy easy hobbies. One example of an activity that is easy for most people is swimming. This hobby requires very little equipment, it is simple to learn, and it is inexpensive. I remember learning to swim at my local swimming pool when I was a child, and it never felt like a demanding or challenging experience. Another hobby that I find easy and fun is photography. In my opinion, anyone can take interesting pictures without knowing too much about the technicalities of operating a camera. Despite being straightforward, taking photos is a satisfying activity.
On the other hand, difficult hobbies can sometimes be more exciting. If an activity is more challenging, we might feel a greater sense of satisfaction when we manage to do it successfully. For example, film editing is a hobby that requires a high level of knowledge and expertise. In my case, it took me around two years before I became competent at this activity, but now I enjoy it much more than I did when I started. I believe that many hobbies give us more pleasure when we reach a higher level of performance because the results are better and the feeling of achievement is greater.
In conclusion, simple hobbies can be fun and relaxing, but difficult hobbies can be equally pleasurable for different reasons.
Ví dụ 3.3: Families who send their children to private schools should not be required to pay taxes that support the state education system. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?
Some people believe that parents of children who attend private schools should not need to contribute to state schools through taxes. Personally, I completely disagree with this view.
For a variety of reasons, it would be wrong to reduce taxes for families who pay for private education. Firstly, it would be difficult to calculate the correct amount of tax reduction for these families, and staff would be required to manage this complex process. Secondly, we all pay a certain amount of tax for public services that we may not use. For example, most people are fortunate enough not to have to call the police or fire brigade at any time in their lives, but they would not expect a tax reduction for this. Finally, if wealthy families were given a tax discount for sending their children to private schools, we might have a situation where poorer people pay higher taxes than the rich.
In my opinion, we should all be happy to pay our share of the money that supports public schools. It is beneficial for all members of society to have a high quality education system with equal opportunities for all young people. This will result in a well-educated workforce, and in turn a more productive and prosperous nation. Parents of children in private schools may also see the advantages of this in their own lives. For example, a company owner will need well qualified and competent staff, and a well-funded education system can provide such employees.
In conclusion, I do not believe that any financial concessions should be made for people who choose private education.
Ví dụ 3.4: Some people think that all teenagers should be required to do unpaid work in their free time to help the local community. They believe this would benefit both the individual teenager and society as a whole. Do you agree or disagree?
Many young people work on a volunteer basis, and this can only be beneficial for both the individual and society as a whole. However, I do not agree that we should therefore force all teenagers to do unpaid work.
Most young people are already under enough pressure with their studies, without being given the added responsibility of working in their spare time. School is just as demanding as a full-time job, and teachers expect their students to do homework and exam revision on top of attending lessons every day. When young people do have some free time, we should encourage them to enjoy it with their friends or to spend it doing sports and other leisure activities. They have many years of work ahead of them when they finish their studies.
At the same time, I do not believe that society has anything to gain from obliging young people to do unpaid work. In fact, I would argue that it goes against the values of a free and fair society to force a group of people to do something against their will. Doing this can only lead to resentment amongst young people, who would feel that they were being used, and parents, who would not want to be told how to raise their children. Currently, nobody is forced to volunteer, and this is surely the best system.
In conclusion, teenagers may choose to work for free and help others, but in my opinion we should not make this compulsory.
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